ืžื”ื™ืจ, ืงืœ ื•ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจ ืกื‘ื™ืจ: ื”ื’ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœืš ืขื•ื“ ื”ื™ื•ื!โž”
ื–ืจื™ื—ื” ืžืขืœ ื”ืจ ื‘ืื ืฃ ื”ืžื•ืฉืœื’ ื‘ืืœื‘ืจื˜ื”, ืงื ื“ื”.

ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื”: ืžื” ืฉื›ืœ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื“ืขืช

ืกืข ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœื” ื‘ืขื•ืœื, ืงื ื“ื”. ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืฉืœืš ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื™ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืœืœื ื“ืื’ื•ืช ืขื ื”ื™ืชืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื–ื”.

2021-04-09 ยท 9 ืงืจื™ืื” ื“ืงื”

ืงื ื“ื” ืžื•ืฉื›ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืž-18 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ืžื“ื™ ืฉื ื”. ืงืœ ืœืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืขื ื ื•ืคื™ื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื, ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ืžืฆื™ืขื•ืช ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืžืคืชื” ืœืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื.

ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื”ื™ืจืื•ืช ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ื‘ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช ืื• ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ื“ื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ืื ื’ืœื™ืช, ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื•ืœื˜ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื•ื•ืช ืืชื’ืจื™ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื–ืจื™ื.

ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื”, ื”ืื ืืชื” ืžื•ื›ืŸ ืœื ื•ื•ื˜ ื‘ืชื ืื™ ื”ื—ื•ืจืฃ ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืฆืคื•ื™ ืœื”ื™ืชืงืœ ื‘ื”ื?

ืœืžื” ืœืฆืคื•ืช ื‘ืงื ื“ื”

ื”ืื ืงื ื“ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ?

ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜! ืงื ื“ื” ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ. ืื ืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื™ืฆืื• ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืงื ื“ื™ โ€‹โ€‹ื›ืš ืฉืชืžืฆืื• ื”ืžื•ืŸ ืชืฉืชื™ืช ื›ืžื• ืืชืจื™ ืงืžืคื™ื ื’ ื‘ื—ื™ื ื ื•ื‘ืชืฉืœื•ื, ืชื—ื ื•ืช ืžื ื•ื—ื”, ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืกืœื•ืœื™ื, ืชื—ื ื•ืช ื“ืœืง, ืžืกืขื“ื•ืช ื•ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืžื›ื•ืœืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ. ืื ืืชื” ื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืื ื’ืœื™ืช, ืœื ืชื”ื™ื” ืœืš ื‘ืขื™ื” ืœื”ืกืชื•ื‘ื‘ ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ืงื ื“ื”.

ืงื ื“ื” ื ื”ื“ืจืช ื’ื ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืฆื™ืขื” ืžืฉื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื. ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื ืืชื” ืื•ื”ื‘ ืขืจื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช, ืฉืžืžื” ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช, ืกืคื•ืจื˜ ืžื™ื, ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ืจื’ืœื™ื™ื, ืจื›ื™ื‘ื” ืขืœ ืื•ืคื ื™ื™ื, ืงื ื™ื•ืช, ืืžื ื•ืช, ืื•ื›ืœ ืื• ืžืฉื”ื• ืื—ืจ, ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืฆื‘ ืืช ื”ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืชื—ื•ืžื™ ื”ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืœืš.

ืจื™ืื ื”, ื›ื•ืชื‘ืช ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ืฉื‘ืกื™ืกื” ื‘ื•ื•ื ืงื•ื‘ืจ, ื—ื•ืœืงืช ืืช ื”ืžืืžืจ ืฉืœื”, The Ultimate Cross Canada Road Trip Itinerary , ื‘ื‘ืœื•ื’ ืฉืœื”, TeaspoonOfAdventure .

ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืขื™ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื, ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืืžืฆืขื™ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื”ืžืขืฉื™ ื•ื”ื—ืกื›ื•ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื”ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื•ื”ืžืจื•ื—ืงื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืื™ื ื ื ื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืจื›ื‘ืช ืื• ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืก.

ืื™ืŸ ืฆื•ืจืš ืœื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ ืžื‘ื•ื”ืœ ืžืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื—ื“ืฉื”. ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื–ื” ืžืคืฉื˜ ื•ืžืฉืคืจ ืืช ื—ื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื•ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœืš, ื•ืขื•ื–ืจ ืœืš ืœื”ืคื™ืง ืืช ื”ืžืจื‘ ืžื”ื”ืจืคืชืงื” ืฉืœืš ื‘ืงื ื“ื”.ย 

ืฉืืœื•ืช ื ืคื•ืฆื•ืช ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื”ื™ืชืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™

ื”ืื ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื”?

ืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ ื•ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืจื›ื‘ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ืงื ื“ื” . ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘, ื”ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืžืืจื”"ื‘ ืžืชืงื‘ืœื™ื.

ืขื ื–ืืช, ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืžืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื–ื“ืงืง ืœืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP) ื‘ืงื ื“ื” , ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืื ื”ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื”ื ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ืื• ื‘ืฆืจืคืชื™ืช. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฉื™ื’ ืžืกืžื›ื™ IDP ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืงื ื“ื”, ืฉื›ืŸ ืืœื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืคืงื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ืงื ื“ื” ืื™ื ื ืชืงืคื™ื ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”.

ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืงืฆืจื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ืื• ื›ืืœื” ืฉื ื•ื”ื’ื™ื ืคื—ื•ืช ืž-90 ื™ื•ื, ืžืกืคื™ืง ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ ืžืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ื•ืœื“ืชืš, ื‘ืœื™ื•ื•ื™ IDP. ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ 16 ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืฉืืช ืืช ืžืกืžื›ื™ ื”ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”.ย 

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืื•ื›ืœ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ืงื ื“ื”?

ืงื‘ืœืช IDP ื”ื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื”, ื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื‘ืงืฉื” ื”ืžืงื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ืฉืœื ื•. ื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜ ืฉืœื ื•, ื”ื’ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœ-IDP, ืกืคืง ืืช ืคืจื˜ื™ืš ื•ืฉืœื— ืชืขื•ื“ื” ืžื–ื”ื” ืžืขื•ื“ื›ื ืช ืขื ืชืžื•ื ื” ื•ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ.

ืžื™ ื–ื›ืื™ ืœ- IDP?

ื”-IDP ื–ืžื™ื ื” ืœืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื ื™ 18 ื•ืžืขืœื” ืฉื”ื—ื–ื™ืงื• ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืžืฉืš ืฉื™ืฉื” ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ืœืคื—ื•ืช. ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ื“ื•ืจืฉื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ 21 ืœืคื—ื•ืช.

ืžืชื™ ื ื“ืจืฉืช ื”-IDP ืฉืœื™?

ื›ืืฉืจ ืฉื•ื›ืจื™ื ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืืช ื”-IDP ืฉืœืš ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืš. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื”ืจืื•ืช ืืช ื”-IDP ืฉืœืš ืœืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืื›ื™ืคืช ื”ื—ื•ืง ืื ืชืคืกื™ืง.

ืœื›ืžื” ื–ืžืŸ ืชืงืคื” IDP?

ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื ืฉืืจ ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ ืœืฉื ื”. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืœ- IDP ืฉื ืžืฉืš ืฉื ืชื™ื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืœื•ืฉ, ืžื” ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ืขื™ืœ ืœื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืชื›ื•ืคื™ื. ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืชื•ืงืฃ ืžืชื—ื™ืœื” ืžื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื ืคืงื”, ืœื›ืŸ ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœื” ื–ืžืŸ ืงืฆืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื”, ืชื•ืš ืžืชืŸ ื–ืžืŸ ืžืกืคื™ืง ืœืงื‘ืœืชื”.

ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืจ ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงื‘ืœ IDP?

ืื ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš IDP ื‘ื“ื—ื™ืคื•ืช, ืงื™ื™ืžืช ืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœืžืกืœื•ืœ ืžื”ื™ืจ ืœืžืฉืœื•ื— ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ื ื™. ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื–ืจื– ืืช ื‘ืงืฉืช ื”-IDP ืฉืœืš ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜ ืชืžื•ืจืช ืชืฉืœื•ื ื ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ื”ืงื“ื.

ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืงื ื“ื”

ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ืžืฆื™ืขื” ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืžื•ื›ืจืช ืœืžื™ ืฉืฉื›ืจื• ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช, ื›ืืฉืจ ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžืื•ืชืŸ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื›ืžื• Avis, Budget ื•ื”ืจืฅ ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช.

ื”ืฉื›ืจื” ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืžืฉื“ื” ื”ืชืขื•ืคื”, ืืžื ื ื ื•ื—ื” ืœื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืื•ื•ื™ืจ, ืืš ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ื ืขื ืขืœื•ื™ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืฉืœ ื“ืžื™ ืžื™ืงื•ื ืžื•ื‘ื—ืจื™ื.

ื”ื ื” ื›ืžื” ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื™ื ืœืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ื—ื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืงื ื“ื”:ย 

ื—ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช Fly-Drive

ืฉืงื•ืœ ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืœืช ื˜ื™ืกื•ืช ืžืืจืฅ ื”ื•ืœื“ืชืš, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืขืกืงืื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘ ื•ื ืกื™ืขื” ืœืชื•ืš ืงื ื“ื”, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืžืกื™ืื˜ืœ ืœื•ื•ื ืงื•ื‘ืจ, ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืคืขืžื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืกื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื’ื™ืœ

ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืžืœื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ืžืฉืชื ื” ืœืคื™ ืžื—ื•ื–, ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืžื’ื™ืœ 16. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื‘ืŸ 21 ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘, ืขื ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืฉื ื” ื‘ื ื”ื™ื’ื”.

ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื‘ื’ื™ืœืื™ 21 ืขื“ 24 ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืกืคื•ื’ 'ืขืžืœืช ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืฆืขื™ืจ' ื•ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืœื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืขืœ ืกื•ื’ื™ ืจื›ื‘, ืื ื›ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื•ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ืขืžืœื” ื–ื•.

ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื

ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘. ืื ื”ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš ืื™ื ื• ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ืื• ืฆืจืคืชื™ืช, ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP).

  • ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ืชืฆื˜ืจื›ื• ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื˜ื™ืกื” ื”ืœื•ืš ื•ืฉื•ื‘.
  • ืœื”ืคืงื“ื” ื ื“ืจืฉ ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ืืฉืจืื™ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืฉื ืขื ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”.
  • ืœื™ืœื“ื™ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœ-18 ืง"ื’ ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ื›ืกื ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช, ืื•ืชื• ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืชืื ืขื ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื”ืฉื›ืจื” ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืช ืชืฉืœื•ื.

ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ืจื›ื‘

ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืš ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ืœื‘ื—ื™ืจื”, ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืื•ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื™ื™ื, ืื ื›ื™ ื’ื ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ื™ื“ื ื™ื™ื ื–ืžื™ื ื™ื. ืฉืงื•ืœ ืื ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš 4WD ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ ื—ืฆืฅ ืฆืคื•ื ื™ื™ื ืื• ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืื—ื•ืจื™ื™ื.

ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื—

ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ ื›ืœื•ืœ ื‘ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘, ืืš ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื ื•ืกืฃ ื›ืžื• ื•ื™ืชื•ืจ ืขืœ ื ื–ืงื™ ื”ืชื ื’ืฉื•ืช (CDW) ื•ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืชืื•ื ื•ืช ืื™ืฉื™ื•ืช ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืชืžื•ืจืช ืชืฉืœื•ื ื ื•ืกืฃ. ื›ืจื˜ื™ืกื™ ืืฉืจืื™ ืžืกื•ื™ืžื™ื ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื CDW ื›ื”ื˜ื‘ื”, ืื– ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืขื ื”ืกืคืง ืฉืœืš.

ืขืžืœื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช

ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืœืขืžืœื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืกืจื” ื‘ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืื—ื“, ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื™ื, ืขืžืœื•ืช ื ื”ื’ ืฆืขื™ืจ ื•ื“ืžื™ ืžื™ืงื•ื ืžื•ื‘ื—ืจื™ื. ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื ืœืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจ ื•ืชืขืจื™ืคื™ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ-ืžื—ื•ื–ื™ื•ืช, ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ืžืกื™ื ื›ืžื• ืžืก ืกื—ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื ื•ืžืก ืžื›ื™ืจื” ืคืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืฆื™ืืœื™, ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื—ื•ืœ ื’ื ื”ื.

ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื”

ืœื—ืœืง ืžื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ื”ืฉื›ืจื” ื™ืฉ ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืขืœ ื—ืฆื™ื™ืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืžื—ื•ื–ื™ื™ื ืื• ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ ื—ืฆืฅ ืื• ืขืคืจ. ืžืขืงื‘ GPS ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื ืคื•ืฅ, ืื– ื”ืงืคื™ื“ื• ืขืœ ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื ื”ืžื•ืชืจื™ื.

ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืงืจื•ื•ืื ื™ื

ืœื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืื—ืจืช, ืฉืงื•ืœ ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืงืจื•ื•ืืŸ ืœื’ืžื™ืฉื•ืช ื•ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืขืช ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื‘ืืชืจื™ ืงืžืคื™ื ื’ ืื• ืคืืจืงื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื. ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืœื›ืœืœื™ื ื•ืœื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืงืจื•ื•ืื ื™ื ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืžื—ื ืื•ืช ื•ื›ืœืœื™ ืœื™ื ืช ืœื™ืœื”. ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืืชืจื™ ืงืžืคื™ื ื’ ืžืจืืฉ.

ื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื”ืžื’ื•ื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”

ืจืฉืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืขื ืคื” ืžืฉืชืจืขืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ื”ื—ืœ ืžื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ื—ื•ืฆื” ืงื ื“ื” ื•ืขื“ ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืคืจื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื›ืคืจื™ืช.

ืจืฉืช ื–ื• ืžืชื•ื—ื–ืงืช ื‘ืงืคื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžืžืฉืœื•ืช ืคืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืฆื™ืืœื™ื•ืช, ื•ื›ื•ืœืœืช ื›ืžื” ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ ืื’ืจื”, ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืœื™ื“ ื’ืฉืจื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืืจื”"ื‘. ืฆืคื™ืคื•ืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ื™ื ื•ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื ืขื™ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื›ืžื• ื•ื ืงื•ื‘ืจ, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืžืจื•ื—ืงื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืืชื” ืขืœื•ืœ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ืœื‘ื“ ืขืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืœืชืงื•ืคื•ืช ืžืžื•ืฉื›ื•ืช.

ืกื•ื’ื™ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืฉื ืžืฆืื• ื‘ืงื ื“ื”:

  • ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื: ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืืœื”, ื”ืžืžื•ืงืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืคืจื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื›ืคืจื™ื™ื, ืžืกืคืงื™ื ื’ื™ืฉื” ืœื ื›ืกื™ื ืคืจื˜ื™ื™ื. ืžืื•ืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืชื ื•ืขื” ื ืžื•ื›ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื”ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืžื“ืจื›ื” ืื—ืช.
  • ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ ืืกืคื ื™ื: ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ ืืกืคื ื™ื, ืฉื ื•ืขื“ื• ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืžื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขื•ืจืงื™ื™ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืœืจื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ืื•ืชื•ืช ืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ืฆืžืชื™ื ืขื ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขื•ืจืงื™ื ื•ืžื“ืจื›ื•ืช ืžืฉื ื™ ื”ืฆื“ื“ื™ื.
  • ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขื•ืจืงื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื: ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืืœื• ืชื•ืžื›ื™ื ื‘ื–ืจื™ืžืช ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื•ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ื’ื™ืฉื” ืœื ื›ืกื™ื ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื. ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื, ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื ืืœื ืžืฆื•ื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ืจืžื–ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืฆืžืชื™ื ื•ื‘ืžื“ืจื›ื•ืช ืžืฉื ื™ ื”ืฆื“ื“ื™ื.
  • ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขื•ืจืงื™ื ืขื™ืงืจื™ื™ื: ื”ืชืžืงื“ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช, ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืืœื” ื™ืฉ ื’ื ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื’ื™ืฉื” ืžื‘ื•ืงืจื•ืช. ื›ืžื• ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขื•ืจืงื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื, ื”ื ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžื“ืจื›ื•ืช ืžืฉื ื™ ื”ืฆื“ื“ื™ื.
  • ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื: ื‘ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืืจืฆื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืช, ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ืžื™ื•ืขื“ื™ื ืœื ืกื™ืขื” ืžื”ื™ืจื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืžืจื—ืงื™ื ืืจื•ื›ื™ื. ื”ื ืื™ื ื ืžืกืคืงื™ื ื’ื™ืฉื” ื™ืฉื™ืจื” ืœืจื›ื•ืฉ ื•ื”ื ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœื™ื ืœื›ืœื™ ืจื›ื‘, ืœืœื ื’ื™ืฉื” ืœื”ื•ืœื›ื™ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืจื•ื›ื‘ื™ ืื•ืคื ื™ื™ื.

ืืชื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืืช ืขืฆืžื›ื: ืœืžื” ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš IDL ื›ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืืœื”? ืื™ืŸ ื“ืจืš ืœื“ืขืช ืžืชื™ ืขืœื•ืœื•ืช ืœืงืจื•ืช ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื ื—ื•ื‘ื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืชืžื™ื“ ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืžื•ื›ื ื™ื ืขื ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื ืื•ืชื™ื ืœื”ืฆื’ื” ืœืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช.ย 

ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื™ื ื•ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ืœื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ืœืขื•ืžืช ืืจื”"ื‘

ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืงื ื“ื” ืžืืจื”"ื‘ ื‘ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ื™ืจืื•ืช ื“ื•ืžื” ื‘ืžื‘ื˜ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ, ืืš ื™ืฉื ื ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ื•ืืชื’ืจื™ื ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ืฉื›ื“ืื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืืœื™ื”ื ืœื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื”.

ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืงื ื“ื™ื•ืช

ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจ ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”, ืžื•ืงื“ ืžืฉื™ื›ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœื—ื•ื‘ื‘ื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข, ืขืœื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ื•ื•ืช ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื ืœื ื”ื’ื™ื. ืžืคื’ืฉื™ื ืขื ืฆื‘ืื™ื, ืื™ื™ืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื™ืœื™ื ืื™ื ื ื ื“ื™ืจื™ื ื•ืขืœื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืกื•ื›ื ื™ื.

ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื–ื”ื™ืจื” ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ืช, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ื‘ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืœืฉื™ืœื•ื˜ ื”ืžืฆื‘ื™ืข ืขืœ ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœื™ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ื”ื™ืžื™ื™ื ื›ืžื• ื ื™ื•ืคืื•ื ื“ืœื ื“ ื•ื ื•ื‘ื” ืกืงื•ื˜ื™ื”, ืฉื‘ื”ื ืื™ื™ืœื™ื ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื.ย 

ื ื”ื™ื’ืช ื—ื•ืจืฃ ื‘ืงื ื“ื”

ื”ื—ื•ืจืฃ ื”ื•ื ืœื ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืงื ื“ื” , ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืชื ืื™ื ื”ืงืฉื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืฉืคื™ืข ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ ืขืœ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”. ืงืจื— ืฉื—ื•ืจ, ื’ื•ืจื ืฉื›ื™ื— ืœืชืื•ื ื•ืช, ื“ื•ืจืฉ ืขืจื ื•ืช ืžืชืžื“ืช.

ืฆื™ื™ื“ื• ืืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœื›ื ื‘ืฆืžื™ื’ื™ ื—ื•ืจืฃ ืœืฉื™ืคื•ืจ ื”ืื—ื™ื–ื”; ืืœื” ื”ื ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ื—ื•ืจืฃ. ื–ื›ื•ืจ, ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉื›ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื ื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืื•ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื™ืช ืขื ืฆืžื™ื’ื™ ื—ื•ืจืฃ, ืื– ื‘ืงืฉ ืื•ืชื ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืช ืชืฉืœื•ื.

ืืžืฆืขื™ ื–ื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื’ืช ื—ื•ืจืฃ

ื‘ื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ืกื›ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื ื”ื™ื’ืช ื—ื•ืจืฃ, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื ืงื•ื˜ ื‘ืžืกืคืจ ืืžืฆืขื™ ื–ื”ื™ืจื•ืช:

  • ื ืฉื ืžืคื•ืช ื ื™ื™ืจ ื›ื’ื™ื‘ื•ื™ ืœ-GPS.
  • ื•ื“ื ืฉืžื›ื•ื ื™ืชืš ืžืฆื•ื™ื“ืช ื‘ืžื’ืจื“ื™ ืฉืœื’, ืคื ืก ืขื•ื‘ื“ ื•ืกื•ืœืœื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช.
  • ื”ืชืœื‘ืฉ ื‘ื—ื•ื, ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ืžื ืœื ื•ื—ื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคืช.
  • ืกืขื• ื‘ื”ื’ื ื”, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืงืคื•ืื™ื ื•ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ืœื™ืœื”.
  • ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืœ ืชืงืœื•ืช, ืฉืง ืฉื™ื ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืฆื™ืœ ื—ื™ื™ื.
  • ืชื›ื ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ืฉืœืš ืžืจืืฉ ื•ื”ื•ื“ื™ืข โ€‹โ€‹ืœืžื™ืฉื”ื• ืขืœ ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ืฉืœืš ื•ืขืœ ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื–ืจื” ื”ืฆืคื•ื™.

ืชืงื ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืงื ื“ื”

ืœื”ืœืŸ ื›ืžื” ืžืชืงื ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืขืœื™ื›ื ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ื‘ืขืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื”:

ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืฆื“ ื™ืžื™ืŸ

ื›ืžื• ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘, ื›ืœื™ ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืฆื“ ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ, ื•ื–ื” ื ื•ื— ืœื ื”ื’ื™ื ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ื ื”ื ื›ื ืกื™ื ืœืงื ื“ื”. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ืขืงื‘ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืงื ื“ื”, ืœื›ืœ ืžื—ื•ื– ืื• ื˜ืจื™ื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืชืงื ื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช, ืžื” ืฉืžื”ื“ื”ื“ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืืจื”"ื‘ ืžืฉืชื ื•ืช ื‘ื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœื”ืŸ.

ื”ื‘ื ืช ืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช

ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžืชื‘ื˜ืื•ืช ื‘ืง"ืž ืœืฉืขื” (ืงืž"ืฉ), ืœื ืžื™ื™ืœื™ื ืœืฉืขื” (ืงืž"ืฉ).

ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืขื™ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช 50 ืงืž"ืฉ, ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื›ืคืจื™ื™ื ื ืขื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ 60-80 ืงืž"ืฉ, ื•ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ 80-100 ืงืž"ืฉ. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืฉืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืžืœื™ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ื ืงื‘ืขื•ืช ืœืจื•ื‘ ืœ-60 ืงืž"ืฉ. ืขื•ื ืฉื™ ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžื•ืคืจื–ืช ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช ืœืคื™ ืžื—ื•ื– ื•ื”ื ื—ืžื•ืจื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื ื™ื™ื”.

ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื—ื’ื•ืจืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช

ืงื ื“ื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื—ื’ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื, ื‘ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืืจื”"ื‘. ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœ-18 ืง"ื’ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื™ืกื ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช, ื•ืื™ ืขืžื™ื“ื” ื‘ืชืงื ื•ืช ืืœื• ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื’ืจื•ืจ ืงื ืกื•ืช ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ื™ื.

ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืขืœ ืขื™ืฉื•ืŸ

ื‘ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ืงื ื“ื™ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ื›ืžื• ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช, ืžื ื™ื˜ื•ื‘ื”, ืื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•, ื ื™ื• ื‘ืจื•ื ืกื•ื•ื™ืง ื•ื”ืื™ ื”ื ืกื™ืš ืื“ื•ืืจื“, ืืกื•ืจ ืœืขืฉืŸ ื‘ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ื” ื ืžืฆืื™ื ืงื˜ื™ื ื™ื. ื‘ื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ืื•ืคื™ื• ื”ื ืจื—ื‘ ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืง ื–ื”, ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื“ื‘ื•ืง ื‘ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžืขื•ื ืฉื™ื.

ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ืกืœื•ืœืจื™

ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ืกืœื•ืœืจื™ ืœืœื ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ืช ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ืช ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืงื ื“ื”. ื”ืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ืขืœ ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื–ื• ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ืงื ืกื•ืช ื”ืžืฉืชื ื™ื ืœืคื™ ืžื—ื•ื– ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื—ืกืจื•ืช ื‘ืจื™ืฉื•ื ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœืš, ืฉื ื•ืชืจื• ื‘ืจืฉื•ืžื•ืช ืฉืœืš ืœืžืฉืš ืฉื ืชื™ื™ื ืžืชืืจื™ืš ื”ืขื‘ื™ืจื”.

ืื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ื

ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืงื ื“ื™ื•ืช ืžืฆื•ื™ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืชืื•ืจืช ื™ื•ื ืื•ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื™ืช. ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื—ืœืง ืžื”ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ืคื ืกื™ื ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ื™ื•ื, ื–ื” ื ื•ื”ื’ ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืื•ืชื ื“ื•ืœืงื™ื ืœืœื ืงืฉืจ ืœืžื™ืงื•ืžืš.

ืื ืืชื” ื ื•ื”ื’ ื‘ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืฉืœืš ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื– ืฉืืชื” ืžื‘ืงืจ ืื•, ืœืฉื ื”ืคืฉื˜ื•ืช, ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืคื ืกื™ื ืฉืœืš ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ื™ื•ื ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช.

ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ืงื ื“ื™ื™ื

ื‘ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืืจื”"ื‘, ืœื›ืœ ืžื—ื•ื– ืงื ื“ื™ โ€‹โ€‹ื™ืฉ ืืช ื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœื•, ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืขื˜ ืžืืชื’ืจื™ื ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ืฉืžืชื›ื ื ื™ื ืœื ืกื•ืข ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืืžื ื ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื” ืชืงื ื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ืœืžื—ื•ื– ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืœืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืืœื™ื”ื, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืื™ื ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžื•ื—ืฅ.

ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช

ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช, ื™ืฉื ื ื›ืžื” ื—ื•ืงื™ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื™ื. ื–ื” ืœื ื—ื•ืงื™ ืœืจื“ืช ื‘ืžื•ืจื“ ื‘ื ื™ื•ื˜ืจืœ; ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืืช ื›ืœื™ ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœื”ื ื‘ื”ื™ืœื•ืš. ื›ืœืœ ื–ื” ื ื•ืขื“ ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืฉื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื™ืฉืžืจื• ืขืœ ื”ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ื›ืœ ืขืช.

ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื™ืฉ ื—ื•ืง ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื ืชื™ื‘ ืฉืžืืœื™. ืื ืืชื” ื‘ื ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืฉืžืืœื™ ื•ืจื›ื‘ ืžื”ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืชืงืจื‘ ืžืื—ื•ืจ, ืขืœื™ืš ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื ื–ื” ื‘ื˜ื•ื—. ืื™ ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื–ื” ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœืงื ืก ืฉืœ $167 ื•ืขื“ ืฉืœื•ืฉ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื—ืกืจ.

ืžื•ื ื˜ืจื™ืื•ืœ

ืฉืœื ื›ืžื• ื‘ื—ืœืงื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง ื•ืงื ื“ื”, ืคื ื™ื™ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืจืžื–ื•ืจ ืื“ื•ื ืืกื•ืจื” ื‘ืžื•ื ื˜ืจื™ืื•ืœ. ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื—ืœืง ืžื”ืฆืžืชื™ื ื‘ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื“ื•ืžื•ืช, ื”ื ืžืกื•ืžื ื™ื.

ืื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•

ื‘ืื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•, ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืฉื™ื™ืชืคืกื• ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžื•ืคืจื–ืช ืฉืœ 50 ืงืž"ืฉ ืžืขืœ ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ืขืœื•ืœื™ื ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆื™ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ืžื™ื™ื“ื™ืช ืœืžืฉืš ืขื“ 7 ื™ืžื™ื. ื–ื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื ื™ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื, ืฉื‘ื”ื ืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœืจื“ืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™.

ืืœื‘ืจื˜ื”

ืืœื‘ืจื˜ื” ืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ืžื›"ื ืœื ืคื•ืœืฉื ื™ื•ืช ืœืื›ื™ืคืช ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื. ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื˜ืจ ืืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžื›ืœื™ ืจื›ื‘ ื—ื•ื ื™ื ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขื”. ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื’ืœืื™ ืžื›"ื ืื™ื ื ื—ื•ืงื™ื™ื ื‘ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ื, ื”ืงืคื“ื” ืขืœ ืžื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžืงื ืกื•ืช.

ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง

ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง ืื•ื›ืคืช ื›ืœืœ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืœื™ืžื” ืคืชืื•ืžื™ืช ื•ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžื•ืฆื“ืงืช ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื—ืกืจื•ืช ื‘ืจืฉื•ืžืช ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœืš. ื”ื—ื•ืง ืžื“ื’ื™ืฉ ืืช ื”ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืชื ื”ื’ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื™ืฆื™ื‘ื” ื•ืฆืคื•ื™ื” ืœื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช.

ื”ื‘ื ืช ืฉืœื˜ื™ ืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื”

ื ื™ื•ื•ื˜ ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืงื ื“ื™ื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ ืžื•ื›ืจ ืœื ื”ื’ื™ื ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื” ื”ื‘ื“ืœื™ื ืขื™ืงืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื›ืœืœื™ื ืฉื›ื“ืื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืืœื™ื”ื:

ืคื ื™ื™ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืื•ืจ ืื“ื•ื

ืœืžืขื˜ ื‘ืžื•ื ื˜ืจื™ืื•ืœ, ืคื ื™ื™ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืื“ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจืช ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ื‘ืชื ืื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื˜ื™ื ื”ืื•ืกืจื™ื ื–ืืช. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื ื“ืจืฉืช ื–ื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืœื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ ื”ืจื’ืœ.

ืขืœ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืœืชืช ื–ื›ื•ืช ืงื“ื™ืžื” ืœื”ื•ืœื›ื™ ืจื’ืœ, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ืืฉืจ ืื•ืชื•ืช ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ ืจื’ืœ ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืื• ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืื•ืจ ื™ืจื•ืง ืœืœื ืื•ืชื•ืช ืžืขื‘ืจ.

ืื•ืจื•ืช ื™ืจื•ืงื™ื ืžื”ื‘ื”ื‘ื™ื

ืงื ื“ื” ืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื”ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืจ ื™ืจื•ืง ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ ื•ื”ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืจ ื™ืจื•ืง ืžื”ื‘ื”ื‘. ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื™ืจื•ืง ื”ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ ืžืชืคืงื“ ื›ืžื• ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘, ืื•ืจ ื™ืจื•ืง ืžื”ื‘ื”ื‘ ืžืฆื™ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืš ื–ื›ื•ืช ืงื“ื™ืžื” ืœืคื ื•ืช ืฉืžืืœื”.

ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืฆืžืชื™ื ืขืžื•ืกื™ื, ืื‘ืœ ื›ื•ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืœื›ืœืœ ื–ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืขืฆื™ืจื•ืช ืคืชืื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืฉืขืœื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ืคืชื™ืข ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื ื’ืจืจื™ื.

ื›ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ ื ืชื™ื‘

ื‘ืขืจื™ื, ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื ืœืจื•ื‘ ืžืฆื™ื™ื ื™ื ืืช ื”ื›ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื ืชื™ื‘. ืฉืœื˜ื™ื ืืœื” ื™ื‘ื”ื™ืจื• ืื ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื ื•ืช ื™ืžื™ื ื”, ื™ืฉืจ ืื• ืฉืžืืœื”, ื•ืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ื”ื“ืจื›ื” ืฉืื—ืจืช ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืฆื•ื™ื ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘. ืœืžื™ื“ืข ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืงืจื ืืช ื”ืžืืžืจ ืฉืœื ื• " ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ื“ื•ืคืŸ ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ".

ืขืฆื™ืจื•ืช 4 ื›ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ื•ืช

ื‘ืชื—ื ื•ืช 4 ื›ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ืœืจื›ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืขื•ืฆืจ ื™ืฉ ื–ื›ื•ืช ืœื”ืžืฉื™ืš ืจืืฉื•ืŸ. ืื ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืฉื ื™ ื›ืœื™ ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ื• ื–ืžื ื™ืช, ื ื›ื ืข ืœืจื›ื‘ ืžื™ืžื™ื ืš. ื™ืฆื™ืจืช ืงืฉืจ ื•ื™ื–ื•ืืœื™ ืขื ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื”ื‘ื”ื™ืจ ื›ื•ื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืฆืžืชื™ื ืืœื•.

ืกื™ืžื ื™ ืฉืคื” ืฆืจืคืชื™ืช

ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ืฆืจืคืชื™ืช ื‘ื—ืœืงื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง. ื”ื™ื›ืจื•ืช ืขื ืžื™ื ื•ื— ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืฆืจืคืชื™ ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื™ืœ, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื ื™ื•ื•ื˜ ื‘ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง.

ืื–ื”ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ

ืฉืœื˜ื™ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ื“ื•ืžื™ื ืœืืจื”"ื‘ ืืš ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืคื—ื•ืช ื ืจืื™ื ืœืขื™ืŸ. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืœืกื™ืžื ื™ื, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืืœื• ื”ืžื–ื”ื™ืจื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืžืขื‘ืจื™ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ, ื”ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื›ืคืจื™ื™ื.

ืชืงื ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืฉื›ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”

ื‘ื—ื•ืคืฉื”, ื”ืชืžื›ืจื•ืช ืœืžื˜ื‘ื— ื•ืžืฉืงืื•ืช ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื—ืœืง ืžื”ื—ื•ื•ื™ื”. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื ืกื•ืช ืืช ื‘ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”, ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื“ืข ืœื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืฉื›ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื—ืžื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื•ืฆื™ื•ืช ืœื—ื•ืง:ย 

ืชืงื ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืฉื›ืจื•ืช ื‘ืงื ื“ื”

ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื—ื•ืงื™ ืฉืœ ืจื™ื›ื•ื– ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื‘ื“ื (BAC) ื”ื•ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœ-0.08 ืž"ื’/ืž"ืœ. ื—ืจื™ื’ื” ืžืžื’ื‘ืœื” ื–ื• ื ื—ืฉื‘ืช ืœืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืคืœื™ืœื™ืช, ื”ื’ื•ืจืจืช ืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ื›ืžื• ืžืขืฆืจ, ืงื ืกื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื ืฉ ืžืืกืจ ืืคืฉืจื™.

ืื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื• ืžื™ื™ืฉืžืช "ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืื–ื”ืจื”" ืœืจืžื•ืช BAC ื‘ื™ืŸ 0.05 ืœ-0.08 ืž"ื’/ืž"ืœ, ืžื” ืฉืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ื—ืžื•ืจื•ืช. ืืคืก ืกื•ื‘ืœื ื•ืช ื—ืœื” ืขืœ ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืžืชื—ืช ืœื’ื™ืœ 21, ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืžืกื—ืจื™ื™ื ื•ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ื (ืขื ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ื ื•ืช G1, G2, M1 ืื• M2), ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื‘ื–ืจื ื”ื“ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”.

ืื›ื™ืคื” ืžืฉื˜ืจืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืงื™ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืฉื›ืจื•ืช

ืฉื•ื˜ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขืจื•ืš ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืช ื ืฉื™ืคื” ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ื“ืจืš ืื ื”ื ื—ื•ืฉื“ื™ื ื‘ืฆืจื™ื›ืช ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ. ืกื™ืจื•ื‘ ืœื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื–ื• ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ื—ืžื•ืจื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืื ื™ืฉื ื” ืกื‘ืจื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื” ืฉื”-BAC ืฉืœ ื ื”ื’ ื—ื•ืจื’ ืžื”ืžื’ื‘ืœื”, ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœืขืจื•ืš ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ื‘ืชื—ื ื”. ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืขืจื•ืš ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืช ืคื™ื›ื—ื•ืŸ ื’ื•ืคื ื™ื•ืช ื’ื ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ื“ืจืš.

ืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ืขืœ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืฉื›ืจื•ืช

ื›ื™ืฉืœื•ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ืคื™ื›ื—ื•ืŸ ืขื BAC ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืฉืœ 0.05-0.08 ืž"ื’/ืž"ืœ ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ื›ืžื• ื”ืฉืขื™ื™ืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ืœ-3 ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื ืก ืฉืœ 250 ื“ื•ืœืจ ืœืขื‘ืจื™ื™ื ื™ื ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื, ืขื ืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ืžื•ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืขื‘ื™ืจื•ืช ืขื•ืงื‘ื•ืช.

BAC ืžืขืœ 0.08 ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืขื™ื” ืฉืœ 90 ื™ื•ื, ืงื ืก ืฉืœ 550 ื“ื•ืœืจ, ืขืžืœืช ื”ื—ื–ืจืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ืกืš 281 ื“ื•ืœืจ ื•ื”ื—ื–ืงืช ืจื›ื‘ ืœืžืฉืš 7 ื™ืžื™ื.

ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื ืžืฉื˜ืจืชื™ื™ื

ืื ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื ืขืฆืจื”, ื”ื ื” ื”ืฉืœื‘ื™ื ืฉื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื• ืื™ื ื˜ืจืืงืฆื™ื” ื—ืœืงื”:

1. ืขืฆื•ืจ ื‘ื‘ื˜ื—ื”: ืขืฆื•ืจ ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ื‘ื˜ื—ื” ื›ืืฉืจ ืžืื•ืชืชื™ื. ื—ื ื” ื‘ื‘ื˜ื—ื”, ืจืฆื•ื™ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉ, ื•ื”ื™ืฉืืจ ื‘ืจื›ื‘ ืขื ืื•ืจื•ืช ืคื ื™ื ื“ื•ืœืงื™ื. ื’ืœื’ืœ ืืช ื”ื—ืœื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœืš ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ืืช ื”ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ื’ืœื•ื™ื•ืช ืขืœ ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ื”ื’ื”.

2. ื”ื™ืฉืืจื• ืจื’ื•ืขื™ื ื•ืื“ื™ื‘ื™ื: ืฉืžืจื• ืขืœ ืจื•ื’ืข ื•ื ื™ืžื•ืก ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจืืงืฆื™ื”. ืื ืื™ื ืš ืžืกื›ื™ื ืขื ื”ืงืฆื™ืŸ, ื”ื™ืฉืืจ ืจื’ื•ืข ื•ื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ืคืชืื•ืžื™ื•ืช.

3. ืฆื™ื•ืช ืœื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช: ืื ื—ื•ืฉื“ื™ื ื‘ืฉืชื™ื™ื”, ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืชืชื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื‘ืฆืข ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ืคื™ื›ื—ื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื˜ื—. ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืงืคื™ื“ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช ื•ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžืฉืงืจื™ื, ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื—ืฉื‘ ื›ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ืžื”ืœื›ื™ ืžืฉืคื˜. ืžื—ืœื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœื”ืืฉืžื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื˜ื•ืคืœื•ืช ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืฉืคื˜.

4. ื“ืข ืืช ื–ื›ื•ื™ื•ืชื™ืš: ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ืื•ืชืš ืœืœื ืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช, ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื–ื›ื•ื™ื•ืช, ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ืฉืชื™ืงื” ื•ืœืกืจื‘ ืœื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื›ื‘ ืœืœื ื”ืกื›ืžื”. ืืชื” ื’ื ื–ื›ืื™ ืœืคื ื•ืช ืœืขื•ืจืš ื“ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืขื ื” ืœื‘ืงืฉื” ื›ืœืฉื”ื™. ื”ืงืœื˜ืช ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจืืงืฆื™ื” ืžื•ืชืจืช, ืืš ืืกื•ืจ ืœื”ืคืจื™ืข ืœืชืคืงื™ื“ื™ ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื”.

ืจืื” ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืฉืœื ื• ืœืขื™ื‘ื•ื“ ืžื–ื•ืจื– ืฉืœ ื”-IDP ืฉืœืš ื•ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžื›ืœ ื”ืคืจืช ืชื ื•ืขื” ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ื™ืขื“ืจ ืชื™ืขื•ื“.ย 

ืžืกืคืจื™ ื—ื™ืจื•ื

ื‘ืขืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื”, ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืœืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืœืžืกืคืจื™ ื”ื—ื™ืจื•ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื:

1. 911 - ื–ื”ื• ืžืกืคืจ ื”ื—ื™ืจื•ื ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ ืœืžืงืจื™ ื—ื™ืจื•ื ืฉืœ ืžืฉื˜ืจื”, ื›ื™ื‘ื•ื™ ืืฉ ื•ืจืคื•ืื”. ื–ื”ื• ืžืกืคืจ ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกืœื™ ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืงื ื“ื” ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื• ื‘ืžืงืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื›ื ื” ืžื™ื™ื“ื™ืช ืื• ืžืฆื‘ื™ื ืžืกื›ื ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื.

2. 511 - ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื—ื™ื™ื’ ืืช ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื•ืžื–ื’ ื”ืื•ื•ื™ืจ.

3. ืžืกืคืจ ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืœืœื ื—ื™ืจื•ื - ืจืฆื•ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ืืช ืžืกืคืจ ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืœืœื ื—ื™ืจื•ื. ืžืกืคืจ ื–ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ืœืื™ืจื•ืขื™ื ื”ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ืžืฉื˜ืจืชื™ ืืš ืื™ื ื ืžืงืจื™ ื—ื™ืจื•ื ื“ื—ื•ืคื™ื (ืœืžืฉืœ, ืชืื•ื ื•ืช ืงืœื•ืช ืœืœื ืคืฆื™ืขื•ืช ืื• ืจื›ื•ืฉ ื’ื ื•ื‘).

ื–ื›ื•ืจ, ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช 911 ืœืžืงืจื™ ื—ื™ืจื•ื ืืžื™ืชื™ื™ื. ืœืกื™ื•ืข ืื• ื‘ื™ืจื•ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ื“ื—ื•ืคื™ื, ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืžืกืคืจื™ื ื”ืžืชืื™ืžื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ื—ื™ืจื•ื.

ื™ืขื“ื™ื ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืงื ื“ื”

ื’ืœื” ืืช ื”ื ื•ืคื™ื ื”ืžื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื•ื”ืงืกื•ืžื™ื ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื” ืขื ื”ืจืฉื™ืžื” ืฉืœื ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ืขื“ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ื”ื . ื›ืœ ื™ืขื“ ืžืฆื™ืข ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื™, ืขื•ืฉืจ ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ ื•ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช.

ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ืื ืฃ, ืืœื‘ืจื˜ื”

ืœื˜ื‘ื•ืœ ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ื‘ื™ื•ืคื™ ืขื•ืฆืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ืžื” ืฉืœ ื”ืจื™ ื”ืจื•ืงื™ ื”ืงื ื“ื™ื™ื ืขื ื ื•ืคื™ ื”ืจื™ื ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื™ื, ืื’ืžื™ ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื– ื•ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ืฉื•ืคืขื•ืช.

ื•ื ืงื•ื‘ืจ, ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช

ืขื™ืจ ืชื•ืกืกืช ืขื ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืื˜ืจืงืฆื™ื•ืช ืขื™ืจื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช, ื”ืžืฆื™ืขื” ื—ื•ื•ื™ื•ืช ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื•ืช ืžื’ื•ื•ื ื•ืช, ืคืืจืงื™ื ืฆื™ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื•ื’ื™ืฉื” ืœืื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืก โ€‹โ€‹ื”ืฉืงื˜.

ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง ืกื™ื˜ื™, ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง

ื”ื™ื›ื ืกื• ืืœ ื”ืงืกื ืฉืœ ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง ื”ืขืชื™ืงื” ืขื ืจื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืจื•ืฆืคื™ื, ื”ืืจื›ื™ื˜ืงื˜ื•ืจื” ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช ื•ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขืฉื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ืฆืจืคืชื™ืช ื•ืงื ื“ื™ืช.

ืžืคืœื™ ื”ื ื™ืื’ืจื”, ืื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•

ืฆืคื• ื‘ืคืœื ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ืžืขื•ืจืจ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฉืœ ืžืคืœื™ ื”ื ื™ืื’ืจื”, ืฉื‘ื”ื ืžืคืœื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขื•ืฆืžื” ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืžืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื.

ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื’'ืกืคืจ, ืืœื‘ืจื˜ื”

ืคื ื™ื ื” ื ื•ืกืคืช ื‘ื”ืจื™ ื”ืจื•ืงื™, ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื’'ืกืคืจ ืžืชื”ื“ืจ ื‘ืงืจื—ื•ื ื™ื, ืื’ืžื™ื ื•ืฉืคืข ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ, ื”ืžืกืคืงื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื—ื” ืฉืœื•ื•ื” ืืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข.

ื˜ื•ืจื•ื ื˜ื•, ืื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•

ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื‘ืงื ื“ื” ืžืฆื™ืขื” ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืื•ืจื‘ื ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ืžื™ืช, ื”ื›ื•ืœืœืช ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืื™ื™ืงื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื›ืžื• ืžื’ื“ืœ CN, ืฉื›ื•ื ื•ืช ืžื’ื•ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืื˜ืจืงืฆื™ื•ืช ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื•ืช.

ื•ื™ืกืœืจ, ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ืช

ื•ื™ืกืœืจ, ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ืขื“ ื‘ืขืœ ืฉื ืขื•ืœืžื™ ืœืกืงื™ ื•ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ื‘ื—ื•ืฅ, ืžืจืชืง ืืช ื”ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ื‘ืื•ื•ื™ืจืช ื”ื›ืคืจ ื”ืืœืคื™ื ื™ ืฉืœื•.

ืžื•ื ื˜ืจื™ืื•ืœ, ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืง

ืขื™ืจ ืงื•ืกืžื•ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืช ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื‘ืคืกื˜ื™ื‘ืœื™ื, ื‘ืกืฆื ืช ื”ืืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืชืขื ื•ื’ื•ืช ื”ืงื•ืœื™ื ืจื™ื™ื ืฉืœื”, ืžื•ื ื˜ืจื™ืื•ืœ ืžืฉืœื‘ืช ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ื•ืช ืขื ืงืกื ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™.

ื”ืื™ ืงื™ื™ืค ื‘ืจื˜ื•ืŸ, ื ื•ื‘ื” ืกืงื•ื˜ื™ื”

ื—ื•ื•ื” ืืช ื”ื ื•ืคื™ื ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืงืื‘ื•ื˜, ื—ืงื•ืจ ื›ืคืจื™ ื—ื•ืฃ ืงืกื•ืžื™ื, ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื” ืžื”ืžื•ืจืฉืช ื”ืงืœื˜ื™ืช ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื”.

ืฆ'ืจืฆ'ื™ืœ, ืžื ื™ื˜ื•ื‘ื”

ื™ื“ื•ืข ื‘ืชื•ืจ "ื‘ื™ืจืช ื“ื•ื‘ื™ ื”ืงื•ื˜ื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื", ืฆ'ืจืฆ'ื™ืœ ืžืฆื™ืข ืืช ื”ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ื”ื ื“ื™ืจื” ืœื—ื–ื•ืช ื‘ื“ื•ื‘ื™ ื”ืงื•ื˜ื‘ ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืชื ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ืช ื•ื‘ื–ื•ื”ืจ ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ื”ืžื”ืคื ื˜.

ืงื‘ืœ IDP ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื™ื•ืคื™ ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”

ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจ ื”ื›ื•ื‘ืฉื•ืช ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”, ื”ื ื•ืคื™ื ื”ืžื’ื•ื•ื ื™ื ื•ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื“ื™ื“ื•ืชื™ื™ื ืžื—ื›ื™ื ืœื›ื. ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžื›ื™ืจ ืืช ืชืงื ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ื–ื” ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ืฉืœื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ . ืืžืฆื• ืืช ื”ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ื”ื–ื• ืœื”ืจืคืชืงื” ืงื ื“ื™ืช ืื•ืชื ื˜ื™ืช, ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื—ื•ื•ืช ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื”ื”ื’ื”!

ื”ืชื™ื™ื—ืกื•ืช

ืงื ื“ื”ื”ืžื•ืขืฆื” ื”ืงื ื“ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืžื ื”ืœื™ ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ืžื•ื˜ื•ืจื™ืชืžืฉืจื“ ื”ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื•ื”ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ ืงื•ืžืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืืœื‘ืจื˜ื”ืžื ื™ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื•ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืชืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื•ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช - ืžืžืฉืœืช ื ื™ื•ืคืื•ื ื“ืœื ื“ ื•ืœื‘ืจื“ื•ืจืžืžืฉืœืช ื”ื˜ืจื™ื˜ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ-ืžืขืจื‘ื™ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” + ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื”ืžืžืฉืœืช ื ื•ื‘ื” ืกืงื•ื˜ื™ื” ื”ืžื—ืœืงื” ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ื•ืชืžืžืฉืœืช ื”ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื•ื ื‘ื•ื˜ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื•ื”ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื™ ื”ื ืกื™ืš ืื“ื•ืืจื“Transports et Mobilitรฉ ืขืžื™ื“ ืงื•ื•ื™ื‘ืงืžืฉืจื“ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืกืกืงืฆ'ื•ืืŸื™ื•ืงื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื•ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื”ื”ืงืจืŸ ืœื—ืงืจ ืคื’ื™ืขื•ืช ืชื ื•ืขื”ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื”ืžืœื›ื•ืชื™ืช ื”ืงื ื“ื™ืช ื”ืจื›ื•ื‘ื” (RCMP)ื—ื•ืงื™ ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื‘ื“ื ืฉืœ ืงื ื“ื”

ืงื‘ืœ ืืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœืš ืชื•ืš ืฉืขืชื™ื™ื

ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืžื™ื™ื“ื™

ืชืงืฃ ืœ-1-3 ืฉื ื™ื

ืžืฉืœื•ื— ืืงืกืคืจืก ืœื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื

ื—ื–ืจื” ืœืžืขืœื”