ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” 2021

ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื™ืคื”ืคื™ื™ื” ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ืช. ื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื›ืœ ื–ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื” ืžืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ื™ืชืจ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœืš.

ืžึฐืขื•ึผื“ื›ึผึธืŸ ืืคืจื™ืœ 9, 2021ยท9 ืงืจื™ืื” ื“ืงื”

ืกืงื™ืจื” ื›ืœืœื™ืช

ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื” ื”ืื•ืžื” ื”ื™ืฆื™ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืืคืจื™ืงื”. ื”ื™ื ืžื•ื ื—ืช ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื˜ื›ื ื™ืช ื‘ื—ืœืงื” ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื‘ืฉืช. ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืืžื•ืจื” ื—ื•ืœืงืช ื“ื™ืคืœื•ืžื˜ื™ืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืขื ื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื”, ื–ืžื‘ื™ื” ื•ื–ื™ืžื‘ื‘ื•ื•ื”. ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื—ืžื” ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช ืœื™ื”ืœื•ืžื™ื, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืœืื•ืชื” ืคื ื™ื ื” ื‘ืชื•ืœื™ืช. ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื™ื ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืขื ืจื›ื‘ ืฉื›ื•ืจ.

ืจื™ืฉื•ื ื”ื”ืขืจื•ืช ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขืช ืงื™ื•ื ืžืคื’ืฉ ืœืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื‘ื”. ื–ื” ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžืœื”ื™ืชืงืœ ื‘ืฆืจื•ืช ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื”ื˜ื™ื•ืœ. ื›ืขืช, ื›ื—ืœืง ืžืขื™ืฆื•ื‘ ื”ืžืกืข, ื•ื•ื“ืื• ืฉื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืื‘ื˜ื—ืช ื”ื™ืชืจ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP) ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจืืฉ ืกื“ืจ ื”ืขื“ื™ืคื•ื™ื•ืช. ืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ืจืฉืžื™ ืฉืœ ืื™ื’ื•ื“ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืœืžื™ื“ืข ืžื•ื’ื“ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ืžื‘ื•ื

ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืžืฉื’ืฉื’ืช ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”. ืžืœื‘ื“ ืื–ื•ืจื™ ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ื™ืžื™ื™ื, ืื•ืžื” ื–ื• ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื’ื ื‘ืชื›ืฉื™ื˜ื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื”. ืฉื˜ื— ื”ื™ื‘ืฉื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืžืฉืชืจืข ืขืœ ืคื ื™ 582,000 ืงืž"ืจ. ืจื•ื‘ ืจื›ื•ืฉื” ืฉืœ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช ื–ื• ืฉื™ื™ืš ืœืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงืœื”ืืจื™. ื› -2.2 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืžืชื’ื•ืจืจื™ื ื‘ืžื•ืœื“ืช ื–ื•, ืขืœ ืคื™ ื ืชื•ื ื™ ื”ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ืฉืœื”ื ื‘ืฉื ืช 2016. ื’ืื‘ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”.

ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื”ื™ืฆื™ืจืชื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืจืชืงื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื™ื•ืคื™ ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ื ืฉืœ ืืคืจื™ืงื”, ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ืชืขื–ื•ื‘ ืืช ื”ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืš, ื•ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ื”ืื•ื™ื‘ ื”ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืฉืœืš. ืœื›ืŸ, ื›ืืฉืจ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืœืœื›ืช ืœืื•ืžื” ื–ื•, ื‘ื—ืจื• ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘. ื–ื” ื™ืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืš ืœื—ืกื•ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ื–ืžืŸ.

ืžืฆื‘ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื ื•ื›ื—ื™, ืขื“ื›ื•ื ื™ื ื•ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ืžืžืฉืœืช ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ืคื•ืชื—ืช ืžื—ื“ืฉ ืืช ื”ื˜ื™ืกื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื•ืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืจืฉืžื™ ื‘ -9 ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืžื‘ืจ 2020. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืื™ื ืŸ ืžื•ืจืฉื•ืช. ืจืง ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ืืžื•ื ื” ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ื ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืœืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืžืœื™ืฆื•ืช ื‘ื—ื•ื ืœืชื–ืžืŸ ืืช ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ืœื–ืžืŸ ืžื”.

ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉื”ืžื’ืคื” ื”ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช ืชืกืชื™ื™ื, ื”ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืชื—ื–ื•ืจ ืžื™ื“. ืœืžื™ื“ืข ืžื“ื•ื™ืง ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ืžื’ื‘ื™ืœ ืขืœ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช, ืื ื ื‘ืงืจื• ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ืชืื—ื“ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™.

ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ื ื“ืจืฉื•ืช ืขื ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”

ืžืžืฉืœืช ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื›ื•ืคื” ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ืืช ืžื˜ืจื•ืช ื”ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœืขื›ืฉื™ื•. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืขื ืกื™ื‘ื” ืชืงืคื” ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืœืžื“ื™ื ื”, ื”ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ ืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื”ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ืคื•ืคื™ื ืœืฆื™ื•ืช ื‘ืืžืฆืขื™ ื”ืกื’ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืฆืขื” ื”ืžืžืฉืœื”. ื›ืœ ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ืžื‘ืงืฉื™ื ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืชื•ืฆืื” ืฉืœื™ืœื™ืช ืฉืœ ืžื‘ื—ืŸ ื”- COVID-19 PCR ื•ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื™ื“ื•ื“ ืฉืœ 14 ื™ื•ื.

ื”ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื”ืจืคื•ืื™ืช ื”ืืžื•ืจื” ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืื•ื—ืจืช ืž- 72 ืฉืขื•ืช ืขื ื”ื”ื’ืขื”. ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืœืคืขื•ืœ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืืžืฆืขื™ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ืฉื ืงื‘ืขื•. ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื™ืกื‘ืœื• ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืฆื™ื•ืช, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืฉื‘ืจ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืžืฉืš ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื”ื ืœื ื™ืกื›ื ื• ืืช ื—ื™ื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื”ื ื‘ื’ืœืœ ื”ืขืงืฉื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื—ื“.

ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืงื•ืœื™ื ื”ืžื™ื•ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ืžืžืฉืœื” ืžืืจื™ื›ื” ืืช ืžืฆื‘ ื”ื—ื™ืจื•ื ื”ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ืขื“ ื”- 31 ื‘ืžืจืฅ 2021. ืœืฆื“ ื–ืืช, ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืื•ื›ืคื•ืช ืขื•ืฆืจ ืืจืฆื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืขื•ืช 19:00 ืœ -4 ื‘ื‘ื•ืงืจ. ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช, ื‘ื ืงื™ื ื•ืžืกืขื“ื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืžืฉื™ืš ื‘ืชืคืขื•ืœ ืฉืœื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืกืคืง ืืช ื”ืฆืจื›ื™ื ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืื ืฉื™ื. ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืžืกื›ื•ืช ืคื ื™ื, ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ื˜ืžืคืจื˜ื•ืจืช ื’ื•ืฃ, ื•ืœืžืœื ืคืจื˜ื™ ืงืฉืจ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืžืขืงื‘ ืื—ืจ ืงืฉืจ.

ืื™-ืžืฉืžืขืช ื•ืื™ ืฆื™ื•ืช ืœืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืงื•ืœื™ื ื”ืžื•ืกื“ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืืคืก ืกื•ื‘ืœื ื•ืช. ื›ืœ ืื–ืจื— ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืขื•ื ืฉ ืจืฉืœื ื•ืช ื”ื•ืœื ืžื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช. ื”ืกื ืงืฆื™ื” ื”ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืœืžืคืจื™ื ื”ื™ื ืžืืกืจ ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืžื•ื—ืœื˜ ืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช.

ื™ื“ืข ื›ืœืœื™ ืื•ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ืื ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช, ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื‘ื™ืก ืืช ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื•ืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ืžื“ื™ื ืช ืกืคืืจื™ ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื–ื• ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื” ืื—ืช ื”ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืขืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื™ื”ืœื•ืžื™ื ื ื•ืฆืฆื™ื. ืื™ืฉ ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืกืจื‘ ืœื ืฆื ื•ืฅ ื”ื‘ื•ื”ืง ื•ื”ืžื ืฆื ืฅ ื”ื–ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืคื ื™ื ื” ื”ื™ืงืจื”. ืžืœื‘ื“ ื™ื”ืœื•ืžื™ื, ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ื• ืžื”ื•ื•ื” ื™ืขื“ ืื•ืคื ืชื™ ื•ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ. ืžืคืืจืงื™ื ืื™ืงื•ื ื™ื™ื, ืกืคืืจื™ ื•ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื˜ื‘ืข ืœื ืžืคื•ืงืคืงื™ื, ืžื•ืœื“ืช ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื’ืŸ ืขื“ืŸ ืžืคื•ืืจ.

ืื ืืชื” ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื™ื“ืข ืขืœ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื”ื›ืœืœื™ืช ื”ืžืจืชืงืช ืฉืœื”, ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ืžืฉื™ืš ืœืงืจื•ื ืœืžื˜ื” ื•ืœื ื•ื•ื˜ ืขืœ ื”ืžืคื” ืฉืœื” ื‘ืžื™ืงื•ืžื” ื”ื’ื™ืื•ื’ืจืคื™. ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ, ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืชืจืฆื” ืœื“ืขืช ืขืœ ื”ืฉืคื•ืช ื”ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ื˜ืจื™ื•ื•ื™ื” ืขืœ ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื‘ื’ืœืœืŸ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ื™ื ืžื’ืžื”.

ืžื” ื”ืžื™ืงื•ื ื”ื’ื™ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”?

ืืจืฅ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ืฉื•ื›ื ืช ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืžืจื›ื– ืฉืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”. ื‘ื”ืชื‘ื•ื ื ื•ืช ื‘ืฆื•ืจืชื•, ื”ื•ื ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ื‘ืขืจืš. ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ ื› -600 ืžื™ื™ืœ ื–ื” ืžื–ื”. ื”ื—ืœืง ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืฉืœื” ื‘ื•ืœื˜ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื—ื“ื”. ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื–ืจื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื“ืจื•ืžื™ื™ื ื™ืฉ ืกื™ืžื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ ื ื”ืจ ื•ืขื’ืœื” ื™ืฉื ื”. ื‘ืงื• ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื™ืฉ ืื•ืกืฃ ืฉื•ืคืข ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ, ื›ื•ืœืœ ื™ื•ื ืงื™ื, ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ื, ื–ื•ื—ืœื™ื, ื“ื•-ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื.

ืžื”ื™ ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืจืฉืžื™ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืจืฉืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืกืคืืจื™ ื‘ืืคืจื™ืงื” ื”ื™ื ืื ื’ืœื™ืช. ืื‘ืœ, ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืœื”ื ื”ื™ื ืกืฆื•ื•ืื ื”. ื–ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื ื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืขื™ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ื•ืื–ื•ืจื™ ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื›ืฉืคื•ื ื™ื ืœืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื›ืคืจื™ื™ื, ืกืฆื•ื•ืื ื” ืฉื•ืœื˜ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืžืขืœ 90% ืžื”ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ืฉืคืช ื”ืื ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืžื“ื™ ื™ื•ื. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ืื ื— ื‘ื”ืงืœื” ื›ืคื™ ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฉื•ื—ื— ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช, ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื™ืœื™ื“ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื™ืชืจื•ืŸ.

ืžื” ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื•ืช ืขืœ ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื–ื• ืžืงื•ื ืžืคืœื˜ ืžืขื•ืœื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืจืคืชืงื ื™ื ื‘ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ. ื› -40% ืžืฉื˜ื—ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืงืœื˜ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืคื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื. ื–ื”ื• ื’ื ื™ืขื“ ืขื™ืงืจื™ ืœืžืงืœื˜ื™ื ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื. ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืœื ืžื”ืคื™ื ื•ืงื™ื ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืฉื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื–ื• ืžืฆื™ืขื”.

ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ ื”ืจื›ื–ื•ืช ื”ื™ื“ื™ื“ื•ืชื™ื•ืช ืœืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืกืคืืจื™ ื–ื” ื‘ืืคืจื™ืงื” ื”ื•ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืžืฉื™ืš ืœื ืกื•ืข ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ืœืงื—ืช ืจืžื” ื—ื“ืฉื” ืฉืœ ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ื–ื” ืžื” ืฉื”ื•ืคืš ืืช ื”ืื“ื ืœืžื•ืชื—ืŸ ืžื•ืกืžืš. ืื ื›ื‘ืจ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ืฆืขื“ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืื• ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื ื“ื•ื“ื™ื, ืœื”ื›ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ื–ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื”ืคืœื™ื. ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉื›ื•ืจื•ืช ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉื•ืช ืœืžื“ื™ ื›ืจื’ืข ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืฉืœ ืžืฉื‘ืจ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื.

ื”ืื ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืจืš ืžืขื™ื“ื” ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื?

ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ืžืงืœื˜ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ืžืคื•ืจืกื, ืืš ืžืœื‘ื“ ื–ืืช, ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ืกืคืืจื™ ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืื•ืžื” ืฉืœื•ื•ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”. ืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช ื™ืฉ ื’ื ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื™ืฆื™ื‘ื” ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื” ื”ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืœื™ื”ืœื•ืžื™ื ืžืกื ื•ื•ืจื™ื. ื—ืคื™ืจืช ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช ื•ืžืฆื™ืืช ื”ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืืชืจื™ ื”ืžืกืชื•ืจ ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื” ื”ื™ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขืช ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื ืขื”. ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ืคื›ืช ืื•ืชืš ืœืฉื•ื ื” ืœืžื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื›ืฉื”ื• ืœืžื˜ื™ื™ืœ ืžืชื•ื—ื›ื ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื˜ืจื“ื•ืช ื›ืืœื” ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“.

ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื“ืจืš ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื”ืืงืจืื™ื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื ืชื—ืœื™ื˜ื• ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘. ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืžืงืกื ืืช ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ืคื ืื™ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื—ื•ืคืฉื™, ื›ืžื• ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืžืจื•ื—ืง ื‘ืงืจื‘ืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ืื• ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืคื ื™ื ื” ืฉืœื ื”ืชื’ืœืชื” ืฉืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ืžื›ื™ืจ. ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืชื›ื ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื‘ืื™ื ืฉืœืš ื•ืœื”ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื–ืžืŸ ืœื ืกื™ืขื” ืฉืœืš.

ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื•ื—ืจ ืœืฆืืช ืœื“ืจืš ื‘ื—ื•"ืœ, ืขืœ ื”ื ื•ืกืข ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ื‘ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ื—ื•ืงื™ื™ื ื•ืขืœื™ื• ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืงื‘ืœืช ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืœื”ืคืขืœืช ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืฉื˜ื— ื”ื–ืจ. ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP) ื”ื•ื ืฆื•ืจืช ื–ื™ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ื‘ืœืขื“ื™ืช ืฉืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื” ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœืชืš ืœื ื”ืœ ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช. ื”ื’ืฉืช ื‘ืงืฉื” ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื”ืชืื—ื“ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืœื›ืœ ืžื‘ืงืฉื™ื” ืืช ืืžื™ื ื•ืชื• ื•ื—ื•ืงื™ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืžืกืžืš ื”ืื‘ื˜ื—ื” ื”ืืžื•ืจ.

ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืฉ IDP ื”ื•ื ืจืง ืชืจื’ื•ื ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืš. ื–ื” ืœื ืชื—ืœื™ืฃ ืžื•ืกืžืš ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ ืฉืœืš. ื™ืฉ ืœืฉืืช ืชืžื™ื“ ืืช ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื ื”ื’ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืš ื•ืืช ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช ืฉืœืš ื‘ื›ืœ ืขืช. ืฉื›ื—ื” ืžื›ืœ ืืœื” ืชื’ืจื•ื ืœื›ื ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื.

ื”ืื ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืชืงืฃ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ ืžื•ืขื™ืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื—ืจืช ื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP). ื™ืฉื ื ื›ื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ืœืคื’ื•ืฉ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืžืฉื™ืš ื‘ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืกืคืืจื™ ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™. ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช ืขื™ืงืจื™ื•ืช ืืœื” ื—ืœื•ืช ืจืง ืขืœ ืžื™ ืฉืžืชืื™ื.

  • ื‘ืขืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืื ื’ืœื™
  • ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืขื ืชืžื•ื ื” ื•ื—ืชื™ืžื”

ืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ื, ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืžืจื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ื ื•ื— ืœืœื ืฆื”"ืœ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืืœื™ื• ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื”ืชืื—ื“ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ืช. ื”ืชื—ืœืช ืžืกืข ื”ื‘ืงืฉื” ืฉืœืš ื‘ืืชืจ ืชื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืœืš ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืžื”ื™ืจ ื•ืืžื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืื‘ื˜ื—ืช ื”ื™ืชืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™) ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”.

ื”ืื ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื ื™ื” ืชืงืฃ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื‘ืขืœื™ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื ื™ื” ืชืงืคื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“. ืžืขื‘ืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื—ืจื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™. ืืœ ืชืฉื›ื— ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื ื”ื’ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ืขืช. ืื•ื›ืคื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื™ืฉืืœื• ื–ืืช ื‘ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืš ืขืจื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”.

ื”ืื ืฆื”"ืœ ืžื—ืœื™ืฃ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžืงื•ืžื™?

ื ื”ื’ ืื—ืจืื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืฆื™ื™ืช ืœื›ืœืœื™ื ื”ืžื™ื•ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ืจื”. ื–ื” ื›ื•ืœืœ ืืช ื”ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ื‘ืจืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ ื•ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืชื™ื•. IDP ืžืฉืžืฉ ื›ืžืกืžืš ืชืจื’ื•ื ืฉืœ ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืš, ื•ื”ื•ื ืื™ื ื• ืชื—ืœื™ืฃ ืžืชืื™ื ืœื•. ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื–ื”, ื”ื—ืœืง ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ืชื™ืง ืื• ื‘ืืจื ืง ืืช ืฉื ื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื ืฉื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืขืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ.

ืžื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืฆื”"ืœ?

ืื“ื ื”ืžืชื›ื ืŸ ืœืจื›ื•ืฉ ืฆื”"ืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื”ื’ ืžื•ืจืฉื” ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ืชื•. ืื“ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืžืกืคื™ืง ื”ื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืืžืช ืืช ื”ื›ื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ื•ื”ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืฉืœ ื”ืคืขืœืช ืจื›ื‘ ื ืข ื›ืจืื•ื™. ืื ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ื“ืจื™ืฉืช ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื, ื”ืจืฉืžื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืื• ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ืชื ื”ื™ื ื”ื—ืœื˜ื” ื ื”ื“ืจืช. ื”ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸ 18. ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘, ื”ืœืงื•ื— ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืŸ 22 ืœืคื—ื•ืช.

ืžืชื™ ืื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœ IDP?

ืื™ืŸ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืงื‘ื™ืขืช ืžื•ืขื“ื™ื, ืชืืจื™ื›ื™ ื™ืขื“ ื•ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืžืฉืš ื–ืžืŸ. ืื™ื ืš ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ื‘ื”ืฉื’ืช ืื—ื“ ืฉื›ืŸ ืชื•ื›ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ืžื•ืขืžื“ื•ืช ื™ื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ืขื–ื™ื‘ืชืš. ื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืืชืจ ืื™ื’ื•ื“ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™. ื–ื” ืงื‘ืข ื›ื”ืœื›ื” ืืช ื ื”ืœื™ ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘- IDP.

ื”ืื ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš IDP ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ืœื ื™ืฆื˜ืจื›ื• ืœืงื‘ืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืขื“ 90 ื™ื•ื. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื’ื‘ื™ืœ ืื—ื“ ืœืกื™ื•ืจ, ืฉื›ืŸ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื–ืจ ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืื™ื ื• ืžืกืคื™ืง ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืฉืจืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื™ืœื™ื“ ืชืงืฃ ืจืง ื‘ืฉื˜ื—ื™ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“. ืื ืœืžื˜ื™ื™ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช, ืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืฆื”"ืœ ืžื™ื“.

ืžื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืฆื”"ืœ?

ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ืฉื—ื•ืœืžื™ื ืœื—ื•ื•ืช ืืช ื”ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชืžืจื•ืŸ ืจื›ื‘ ืขืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืฆื”"ืœ. ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ ืžืืจืฆื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื• ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ืœื‘ื“, ื—ืœืง ืžืกื•ื›ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื“ื•ืจืฉื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืžืฉื•ื›ืจื™ื”ื ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื”ื ืชืข"ื ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื ื”ื’ ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ ืฉืœื”ื. ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืš ืชืžื•ื ื” ื‘ืจื•ืจื” ื•ื—ืชื™ืžื” ืขืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”.

ืžืชื™ ื™ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘- IDP?

ื”ื™ืชืจ ืฉืœ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื™ืฉืžืฉ ื›ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื ืืงืจืื™ื™ื ื•ืขืฆื™ืจื•ืช ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ. ื–ื” ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ ื’ื ื‘ื”ื–ืžื ื” ืื• ื”ื–ืžื ืช ืจื›ื‘ ืฉื›ื•ืจ ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ื–ื›ืจื• ืฉืฉื›ื—ื” ืขื ื”ื‘ืืช ืชืขื•ื“ืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื•ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืกืชื™ื™ื ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื.

ื›ืžื” ื–ืžืŸ ืชื•ืงืคื• ืฉืœ ืฆื”"ืœ?

ื”ืชื•ืงืฃ ื”ื›ืœืœื™ ืฉืœ ืฆื”"ืœ ื”ื•ื ืขื“ ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืฉื ื™ื. ืื‘ืœ, ื–ื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืชืœื•ื™ ื‘ืžื˜ืจืช ื”ื™ื™ืฉื•ื. ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ, ืื ืžื•ืขืžื“ ืžืฉื™ื’ ืœืฆื•ืจื›ื™ ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช, ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžื•ื ืคืงืช ื—ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœืฉื ื”. ืื•ืœื, ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื“ืื’ื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื•ืช ืœืขืกืงื™ื, ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื ื™ืชื ืช ืœื”ื ื—ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœืฉื ืชื™ื™ื ืื• ืฉืœื•ืฉ.

ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ื”ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื”ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื”, ืืš ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ื”ื™ื ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืชืขื ื’ ืขืœ ื”ืฉืžืžื” ื”ืืคื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช ื”ื–ื•, ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื”ืคืœื’ื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ืชืชืŸ ื˜ืขื ืžืœื ืฉืœ ื”ืชืจื’ืฉื•ืช. ื”ื“ืื’ื•ืช ื•ื”ื“ืื’ื•ืช ืฉืœืš ืžืœื”ืฉื™ื’ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืงื™ื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ืžื•ื—ืš. ื‘ืœื—ื™ืฆืช ื›ืคืชื•ืจ ืื—ืช ืขืœ ืžืคืชื— ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืฉืœืš, ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืœื•ืš ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ืืœ ืžืงื•ื ื”ืœื™ื ื” ืฉืœืš ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ื’ื“ืจื” ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ื ื•ื—ื•ืช.

ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืงื™ื™ืžืช ื“ืจื™ืฉื” ืœื’ื™ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื ืœื”ืฉื›ืจื”, ืฉื”ื™ื ื‘ืช 22. ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ื™ืฉืชื ื” ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืชืงื ื•ืช ื”ืงื™ื™ืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ืกื•ื›ื ื•ืช ืœื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘. ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืœ ื—ื•ืงื™ ืฉืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ. ื“ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ื ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื IDP. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืื ื’ืœื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื’, ื”ื ืขืœื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืชืงืฉื•ืช ืœื”ื‘ืงื™ืข ืจื›ื‘. ืœื›ืŸ, ืขืœ ื”ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ื‘ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื”ื ื”ื’ ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืžื˜ืขื ืื™ื’ื•ื“ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™.

ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘?

ื‘ืขืช ื™ืฆื™ืจืช ืชื•ื›ื ื™ืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ, ื”ื‘ืื” ืœื—ืคืฉ ื”ื™ื ืกื•ื›ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื”ื–ื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื”ื–ื•ืœื•ืช. ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื–ื” ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืžื—ื™ืจ ื ืžื•ืš ืฉืœ ื“ืžื™ ื”ืฉื›ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืœืงื‘ืœ ืขืกืงืช ื—ื‘ื™ืœื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื”. ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืžื”ืฉื•ืจื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ื—ื•"ืœ. ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืงื•ื•ืŸ ืื• ื”ื–ืžื ืช ื—ื“ืจ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืชืขื•ืคื”. ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื ื—ื•ืช ืื•ืชืš ื‘ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ืกื•ื›ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื—ืคืฉ.

  • ืื•ื•ื™ืก
  • Bidvest
  • ื™ื•ืจื•ืคืงืืจ
  • ื”ืจืฅ
  • ืงื“ื™

ืชื–ื›ื•ืจืช ืžื”ื™ืจื” ื‘ืขืช ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืขืกืงืื•ืช ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜, ื”ืงืคื“ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ืžื”ื™ืžื ื•ืช ื”ืืชืจ ืฉืืชื” ื‘ื•ื“ืง. ื–ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืžืžืš ื›ืœ ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ื”ื•ื ืื” ื•ื”ื•ื ืื”. ืืœ ืชืงื•ื“ื“ ื‘ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื™ื“ืข ื”ืื™ืฉื™ ืฉืœืš ืื ื ืจืื” ืœืš ืฉื”ืืชืจ ื—ืฉื•ื“. ืื ืืชื” ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ื–ืžื ื•ืช ืžืงื•ื•ื ื•ืช ืœื ื™ืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจืš, ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ื–ืžื ื•ืช ืฉืœืš ืžื™ื“ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืชืขื•ืคื”.

ืžื”ื ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉื™ื ืœื”ืฉื›ืจื”?

ืกืคืงื™ ืจื›ื‘ ืœื”ืฉื›ืจื” ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืžื”ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืชื™ืขื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืช ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ื”ื–ืžื ื”. ื–ื• ื”ื•ื›ื—ื” ืชืงืคื” ืœื›ืš ืฉืฉื•ื›ืจ ืžืชืื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืจื›ื‘. ื”ืงืคื“ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืืช ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื ืื™ืชืš ื›ืฉืืชื” ืื•ืกืฃ ืืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืชืš. ืกื•ื›ืŸ ืกืคืงื™ ื”ื”ืฉื›ืจื” ื™ื‘ืงืฉ ื–ืืช ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืœืื™ืžื•ืช. ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื™ื ื™ื—ื•ืœื• ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœื’ื™ืœ ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืฉื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื–ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœืขืœื•ืช ืœื›ื ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจ ื’ื‘ื•ื”.

  • ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžืงื•ืจื™
  • ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ
  • ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP)
  • ืืฉืจืื™ ืื• ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื—ื™ื•ื‘

ื“ืื’ ืœื‘ืงืฉ ืžืกืคืจ ืงืฉืจ ื‘ืžืงืจื” ื—ื™ืจื•ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื. ื–ื” ื™ืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืš ืžืื•ื“ ื›ื™ ืืชื” ื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืžื™ ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ ืžื™ื“. ืืœ ืชื”ืกืกื• ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ื—ืฉืฉื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื›ื›ืœ ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื•.

ืžื”ืŸ ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ืœ?

ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื•ื 18 ืฉื ื™ื. ืœื›ืŸ, ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืชื’ื™ืข ืœื’ื™ืœ ื”ืืžื•ืจ, ื›ืขืช ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื”. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืื™ื ืš ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘ ืืœื ืื ืืชื” ืžื’ื™ืข ืœื’ื™ืœ ื”ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืžืœื™ ืฉืœ 22 ืฉื ื™ื. ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ื’ื ืœืฆืคื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืกืคืช ืžื—ื™ืจ ื™ืงืจื” ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ื’ื™ืœืื™ื.

ืžื”ื• ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ืขืžืœื” ื•ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื‘ื•ืกืก ื“ืžื™ ื”ืฉื›ื™ืจื•ืช?

ืกื•ื›ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืžืกืžื ื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืืช ืžื—ื™ืจืŸ ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœื‘ื™ืงื•ืฉ ื‘ืฉื•ืง. ืื ื”ื ืจื•ืื™ื ื‘ืงืฉื•ืช ื•ื”ื–ืžื ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื•ืช ื™ื—ืกื™ืช ืœืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืžืกื•ื™ืžืช, ื”ื ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืงื•ื‘ืขื™ื ืืช ื”ืขืœื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื”ืจื’ื™ืœ. ื’ื•ืจื ื ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื ืขืจืš ื”ืชื—ื–ื•ืงื” ืฉืœ ืจื›ื‘. ืœื›ืžื” ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื ืจืื” ืฉื™ืฉ ื—ืœืง ื ื“ื™ืจ, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื”ืกื•ื›ื ื•ืช ื ื•ื˜ื” ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ืžื—ื™ืจ. ืื‘ืœ, ื™ืฉื ื ืžื•ืชื’ื™ื ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื™ื ืฉืœ ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ืชื›ื•ื ื•ืช ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ืืกืคืงื” ืื™ื ืกื•ืคื™ืช.

ื‘ื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ืขื ื”ื™ืงืฃ ืžื—ื™ืจื™ ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ื™ืจื•ืช, ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ื—ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืขื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื”ืฉื›ื•ืจ ื›ื•ืœืœื•ืช ืขืจื›ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื”, ืฆื™ื•ื“, ืกื™ื•ืข ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ, ืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจืื– 'ื‘ื’ื–, ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืื™ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืœืฆื“ ื’'.

ื”ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ื›ืฉืืชื” ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืจื›ื‘?

ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืจื›ื‘ ืœื”ืฉื›ืจื” ื ื•ื˜ื•ืช ืœื”ืคืจื™ื“ ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืžื—ื‘ื™ืœื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ, ื•ืื– ื”ืกื•ื›ืŸ ืฉืœื”ืŸ ื™ืฆื™ืข ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืžื—ื™ืจ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืžื”ืจื’ื™ืœ. ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ื’ืจื•ื ืœื‘ื ืง ืฉืœืš. ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ืกื•ืš ืžืžืš, ื ืกื” ืœืคื ื•ืช ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืœื‘ื ืง ืฉืœืš ื•ืœืจืื•ืช ืื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ื›ื–ื” ื”ืžื›ืกื” ืจื›ื‘ ืฉื›ื•ืจ ื–ืจ. ืื ืืชื” ื‘ืขืœ ืจื›ื‘ ืคืจื˜ื™, ืฉืืœ ืืช ื”ืกืคืง ืฉืœืš ืื ื”ื•ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืืจื™ืš ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืขืœ ืจื›ื‘ ืฉื›ื•ืจ ื‘ื—ื•"ืœ.

ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืื—ืช ืžื”ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืขื•ืช ื™ืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืš ืœื ืœื™ืคื•ืœ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื”ืฆืขื” ืฉืœ ื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘. ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื’ื ืœื”ื“ืจื™ืš ืื•ืชืš ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœื—ืกื•ืš ืืช ื”ื›ืกืฃ ืฉื”ืจื•ื•ื—ืช ืงืฉื” ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืฉืœืš.

ื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœื—ื•"ืœ ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืืช ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืœืฆื™ื™ืช ืœื›ืœืœื™ื ื•ืœืชืงื ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื˜ืœื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ื™ืขื“ ืฉืœื”ื. ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘, ื™ืฉ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืื“ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื—ื•ืงื™ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ืจื”. ืื™ ืขืžื™ื“ื” ื‘ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืงื•ืœื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืฆืคื•ื™ ืœืขื•ื ืฉ ื•ืื™ืฉื•ืžื™ื. ื”ื›ืจื” ื•ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืงืคื“ื ื™ืช ืขืœ ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื ื—ื•ืฆื” ืžืื•ื“ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืืช ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ื ื ืฉืœ ืื ืฉื™ื.

ื”ื–ื ื—ืช ื›ืœืœื™ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื•ื“ื™ื ื™ ืื›ื™ืคื” ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื™ืงื‘ืœื• ื—ื™ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืงื ืกื•ืช ืžืชืื™ืžื™ื. ื™ืฉ ืืคืก ืกื•ื‘ืœื ื•ืช ืžื•ื—ืœื˜ ื ื’ื“ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ืคื–ื™ื–ื™ื ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื”. ื”ื“ื’ื™ืžื• ืืช ื”ืื•ืคืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื—ืก ื”ืจืื•ื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ืขืช.

ืžื™ ืžื•ืจืฉื” ืœื ื”ื•ื’?

ืœืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื–ื›ื•ืช ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœ ืื• ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ื”ื’ื”. ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืชืจื’ื•ื ืœืื ื’ืœื™ืช ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœื”ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™. ื“ื™ืœื•ื’ ืขืœ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื–ื” ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœืงื ืกื•ืช ื•ืขื ื™ืฉื” ื›ื‘ื“ื™ื. ื—ื•ื‘ืช ื”ื ื”ื’ ืื™ื ื” ื›ื” ืงืœื” ื›ืคื™ ืฉืืชื” ืžื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ.

ืืœ ืชืืคืฉืจ ืœื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื—ื–ื™ืง ื‘ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื’. ืืชื” ืžืคืงื™ื“ ืืช ื—ื™ื™ืš ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืื“ื ืฉืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ื“ืข ืขืœ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื ื›ื•ื ื”. ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืฉืชืื•ื ื•ืช ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื™ืชืจื—ืฉื•, ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืœื ื™ื›ืกื” ืืช ื ืคื’ืขื™ื›ื. ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœืš ื”ื’ื ื” ืžืœืื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ.

ืžื”ื ื”ืชืงื ื™ื ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื”ื™ื’ื”?

ืขื ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช ื•ืชื–ื›ื•ืจื•ืช ืœืกืงื™ืจื”, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืฆืืช ืœื“ืจื›ื™ื ื”ืคื ื˜ืกื˜ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ืื ื›ื‘ืจ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืื•ืคื™ื™ื ื™ื™ื, ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื”ืชืžืงื“ื•ืช ืฉืœืš ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื‘ื”. ืœื”ืœืŸ ื›ืžื” ืžื”ื›ืœืœื™ื ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ื™ื ืฉืขืœื™ื›ื ืœืคืขื•ืœ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืืชื ืงื•ืคืฆื™ื ืœืจื›ื‘ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืืชื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื, ื•ื›ืœืœื™ ื—ื ื™ื”.

ื•ื“ื ื›ื™ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืืชื” ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื”ืื›ืกื ื™ื” ืฉืœืš, ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืคืขืžื™ื™ื ืืช ื”ืชื™ืง ืฉืœืš. ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืื ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ื‘ื˜ื—ืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื•ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื™ืœื™ื“ ืฉืœืš. ื™ืฉ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืฉื•ืžืจื™ ืื‘ื˜ื—ื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื, ืื– ื”ื™ื–ื”ืจ.

ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื ื›ื ืก ืœืจื›ื‘

ื”ืชื—ืœ ืืช ื”ื™ื•ื ืฉืœืš ื‘ื—ื•ืฉื™ื ืฉืœืžื™ื. ืื›ืœื• ืืจื•ื—ืช ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื•ืฉืชื• ืงืคื” ื—ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืžืขืจื›ืช. ื”ืžื™ืงื•ื“ ื•ื”ืชืฉื•ืžืช ืœื‘ ืฉืœืš ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื. ื“ืœื’ ืขืœ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืื ืื™ื ืš ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ืžืฆื•ื™ืŸ. ืขื“ื™ืฃ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ื• ืœื”ืชืงืฉืจ ืœื ื”ื’ ื—ืœื•ืคื™ ื‘ืžืงื•ื.

ื’ื•ืจื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ื ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื ืžืฆื‘ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืจื›ื‘. ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืื ื‘ืจื›ื‘ืš ื™ืฉ ืกื˜ ืฉืœื ืฉืœ ืขืจื›ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื•ืฆื™ื•ื“. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ืฉืงื•ืœ ืœื”ืชืงื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื‘ืขืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ืขื ื™ืœื“ื™ื. ื™ืฉ ืœื•ื•ื“ื ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืืช ืฉืœื•ืžื ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืฆืจื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจืš.

ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ

ืืชื” ื ืžืฆื ื›ืขืช ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ. ืืœ ืชืชื ื• ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื™ื•ืชืจื™ื ืœื”ืคืจื™ืข ืœื›ื. ื”ืชื ืชืง ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืžื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ื ื™ื ื ื™ื™ื“ื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ืื™ื ืš ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืงืฉืจ ืขื ืื—ื“ ื›ื–ื”. ื–ื” ืจืง ื™ืคื’ืข ื‘ืš ื•ื‘ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืฉืœืš ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืจื›ื‘. ืื, ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ ืขืœ ืื“ื ื‘ืขืช ื—ื™ืจื•ื ืื• ืื ืืชื” ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืฉืœืš ื›ื ื•ื•ื˜, ืฉืืœ ืืช ืกื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืœื”ืชืงื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื›ืช ืœืœื ื™ื“ื™ื™ื.

ื›ืฉืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืฉืœื•ื— ื”ื•ื“ืขื” ืœืžื™ืฉื”ื•, ืžืฉื•ืš ืืช ืฆื“ ื”ื“ืจืš ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื–ืืช. ืืœ ืชื ืกื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื–ืืช ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื—ืฆื™ื™ืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ. ื™ืฉ ืžืฆืœืžื•ืช ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘.

ืื—ืจื™ ื›ืœืœื™ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื•ื—ื ื™ื”

ื›ืฉื ื—ืช ืกื•ืฃ ืกื•ืฃ ื‘ื™ืขื“ ืฉืœืš, ื“ืื’ ืœืžืฆื•ื ืื–ื•ืจ ืžืื•ื‘ื˜ื— ื•ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ืœื—ื ื™ื”. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื ื•ื— ืืช ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ืฆื“ ื”ืจื—ื•ื‘, ืืชื” ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืžืกืคื™ืง ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช. ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืœืฉืœื ื“ืžื™ ื—ื ื™ื” ื•ืœื ืœืงื—ืช ืกื™ื›ื•ื ื™ื ืœื”ื—ื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืื™ืคืฉื”ื•.

ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืืชื ืงื•ืคืฆื™ื ืžื”ืจื›ื‘, ื“ืื’ื• ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืืช ื—ืคืฆื™ื›ื. ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชืš ื”ืืจื ืง, ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช, ื”ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ, IDP ื•ื”ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืฉืœืš. ืืœ ืชืฉืื™ืจ ืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื™ืงืจ ืขืจืš ื‘ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš.

ื”ืื ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ื”ืฉืคืขืช ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ืฉืชื™ื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืžื’ื‘ืœืช ืื—ื•ื– ื”ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื‘ื“ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื™ื—ืกื™ืช. ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืช 0.08 ืžื™ืœื™ื’ืจื ืฉืœ ื›ืœ 100 ืž"ืœ ื“ื. ื‘ื›ืš ืคื’ื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืฉืคืขืช ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืงืฉื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืžืคืจื™ื ืฉื™ื™ืœื›ื“ื• ื‘ืฉื›ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ืงื ืก ืžืงืกื™ืžืœื™ ืฉืœ 10,000 ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ืคื•ืœื” ื•ืขื•ื ืฉ ืžืืกืจ.

ืžื”ื™ ืžื’ื‘ืœืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืžืชื›ื ื ื™ ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœื ืกื•ืช ืืช ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ื”ื—ื“ืฉื ื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื’ื ืืช ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”. ืœื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื™ืฉ ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื” ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื–ื”. ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉืืžื•ืจื•ืช ืœืงื—ืช ื—ืœืง ื‘ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื”ื•ื ืœืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš. ื–ื”ื• ืื—ื“ ืžื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืžื™ื•ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”.

ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ืกืคืืจื™ ื‘ืืคืจื™ืงื” ืื•ื›ืคืช ื‘ืงืคื“ื ื•ืช ืืช ื”ืฆื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื˜ ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืื–ื•ืจ ื“ืจื›ื™ื. ื›ืœ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ืžื•ืจืฉื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœืฆื™ื™ืช ืœื›ืœืœ. ืื—ืจืช, ื”ืื™ืฉื•ืžื™ื ืžืžืชื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืคืจื™ื ืขื™ืงืฉื™ื.

  • ืื•ื˜ื•ืกื˜ืจื“ื•ืช - 120 ืงืž"ืฉ
  • ืขื™ื™ืจื” ื•ื›ืคืจื™ื - 30 ืงืž"ืฉ
  • ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื›ืคืจื™ื•ืช / ืจืืฉื™ - 60 - 100 ืงืž"ืฉ

ืžื”ื ื—ื•ืงื™ ื—ื’ื•ืจืช ื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื—ื‘ื™ืฉืช ื—ื’ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ื”ื™ื ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื—ื’ื•ืจ ืืช ื—ื’ื•ืจืชื ื‘ื›ืœ ืคืขื ืฉื”ื ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืœื ืกื™ืขื”. ืคืขื•ื˜ื•ืช ืžืชื—ืช ืœื’ื™ืœ 12 ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืชืคื•ืก ืืช ื”ืžื•ืฉื‘ ื”ืงื“ืžื™ ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืžื•ืฉื‘ ืจื™ืกื•ืŸ ืœื™ืœื“ื™ื. ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืœื ืœืฆื™ื™ืช ืœื—ื•ืง ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ื ืฉ ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ืžื”ื ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืœื’ืœื•ืช ืืช ืจื›ื–ื•ืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืžื•ืคืœืื•ืช ื•ืืช ื”ื ืกื™ื’ื•ืช ื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืจืชืงื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ืจื›ื‘. ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื—ื•ืคืฉ ื‘ืฆืคื™ื™ื” ื‘ื ื•ืคื™ื ื”ืžืจืชืงื™ื ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืจืื•ืช ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ืžืกืข ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ืฉืœื›ื. ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืš ื–ืžืŸ ืคื ืื™ ืœื”ืชืืคืง ื‘ื›ืœ ืชื—ื ื•ืช ืžื ื•ื—ื” ืœืงื ื•ืช ืืจื•ื—ื•ืช, ืœืชื“ืœืง ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืคื ืง ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื•ื‘ื›ื™ืฃ ืžื•ื—ืœื˜.

ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื—ื•ืœืงืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ืขื ื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื–ื™ืžื‘ื‘ื•ื•ื”. ืื ืืชื” ืชื•ื”ื” ืื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ื‘ื ืกื™ืขื” ื“ืจืš ื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื” ืื• ื–ื™ืžื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ืœื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืฆืคื” ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ืœื ืกื™ืขื”. ืœืขื•ืœื ืืœ ืชืฉื›ื— ืœื ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœืš ื•ืืช ื”ืžื˜ืขืŸ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืžืขื‘ืจ ื”ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืงืฆื™ื ื™ ื”ื”ื’ื™ืจื” ื™ื‘ืงืฉื• ื–ืืช ืขื ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื”.

ืžื”ื ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ืžื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ืฉืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืœื—ื™ื™ื ืื•ืœื˜ื™ืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ, ืื•ืœื™ ื™ืจืฆื• ืœืœื›ืช ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื’ื‘ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื—ืจืช. ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืœืงื—ืช ื˜ื™ืกื•ืช ืื•ื•ื™ืจื™ื•ืช, ื ืกื™ืขื” ื“ืจืš ื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื” ืœื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ืืชื’ืจ ืžืจื’ืฉ ืœื”ืชื ืกื•ืช. ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ื”ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ื•ื ื›ืžืขื˜ 11 ืฉืขื•ืช, ืืš ื”ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื”. ื“ืจื›ื™ ืื’ืจื” ื•ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ ื”ื’ื™ืจื” ืžืžืชื™ื ื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ. ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื”ื›ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉื™ื ืœื”ืคื—ืชืช ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ืžืฆื™ืื” ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื”ืžืชื ื” ื‘ืชื•ืจ.

ืžื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื” ืกืขื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ A2 ืœืžืกืœื•ืœ ืžื”ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืืจื•ืš ืœืžื“ื™ ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฆืจื•ืš ืฉืขื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช, ืคื’ื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืชื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืื™ื›ืฉื”ื• ืืช ืฉืœื•ืžืš ื‘ื ืกื™ืขื” ืœื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”. ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืฉื‘ืžืกืœื•ืœ ื–ื” ืืชื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื™ืชืงืœ ื‘ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื ื•ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื—ืคืฉ ืืช ื”ืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืงื•ืœื™ื ื”ืžื™ื•ืฉืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืžืฉื™ืš. ื”ื›ื™ื ื• ืืช ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช ื•ื”ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœื›ื ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ืœืื™ืžื•ืช.

ืžื”ื ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ื”ื ืกื™ืขื” ืžื–ื™ืžื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ืœื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”?

ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืžื•ืกืžื›ื™ื ืฉืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืจื’ืข ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ืœื”ืฆืœื™ื— ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ ื‘ืœื™ ืœื“ืื•ื’ ืœื–ืžืŸ. ืœืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ื, ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืงืฉื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช, ืื‘ืœ ื–ื” ืฉื•ื•ื” ืืช ื”ืกื™ื›ื•ืŸ. ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืคืขื™ืœ ื›ืขืฉืจ ืฉืขื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ืžื–ื™ืžื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ื“ืจืš ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ืกืคืืจื™ ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ื”ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื”.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ื”ืจืคืชืงื”, ืกืขื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ A1 ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื–ื”ื• ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืžืœืฆืช ืœื ืกื•ืข ืืœ ืคืœืื™ ื”ืืคื™ ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ื–ื›ื•ืจ ืฉืขืœื™ืš ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืืช ืชืงื ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื™ืฉ ื’ื ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ ืื’ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืŸ, ืื– ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืš ื›ืกืฃ ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ื‘ืชืฉืœื•ื. ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ, ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP) ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื‘ื”. ื‘ืขืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื–ืจ ืœื‘ื“ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ืœื”ืกืคื™ืง ื›ืฉืืชื” ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืก ืœืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืืš ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืฉื™ื”ื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืœืžืขืŸ ื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช.

ืžื”ื ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ ื”ืชื ื•ืขื”?

ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืžืฆื•ื™ื ื™ื. ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœื ื™ืชืงืฉื• ืœื ื•ื•ื˜ ืืช ื“ืจื›ื ืœื™ืขื“ื™ื”ื. ืฉืœื ื›ืžื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ืจื” ืื—ืจืช, ืœืื•ืžื” ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช ื–ื• ื™ืฉ ืจืง ืฉื ื™ ืกื•ื’ื™ื ืฉืœ ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื: ืฉืœื˜ื™ ื”ืจื’ื•ืœืฆื™ื” ื•ื”ืชืจืื”. ื”ืฉื™ืœื•ื˜ ื”ืจื’ื•ืœื˜ื•ืจื™ ืžืื•ืชืช ืœืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ืœืขืฆื•ืจ, ืœืืกื•ืจ ื•ืœืคื ื•ืช ืืช ืžืงื•ืžื. ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื”ืื–ื”ืจื”, ื–ื” ืœื”ื–ื”ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœืžื” ืœืฆืคื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื“ืจื›ื.

ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ื—ื“ืฉ ืœืžื“ื™, ืžื—ืงืจ ื™ืงืจ ืขืœ ื”ื’ื“ืจื•ืชื™ื”ื ื™ื”ื™ื” ื™ืชืจื•ืŸ. ื–ื›ืจื• ืฉืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื›ื ืžื•ืฉื’ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืชืžืจื•ืจ ืžืกื•ื™ื, ืืœ ืชื”ืกืกื• ืœื—ืคืฉ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜. ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื ื–ืง ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื—ื•ืง ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื” ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™.

ืžื”ื™ ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ื“ืจืš ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืคื•ื’ืขื™ื ื‘ืฆื“ ืฉืžืืœ ืฉืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื”. ืื ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืœ ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ื“ืจืš, ื›ื•ืœื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื›ื ืข ื›ืฉืžืชืงืจื‘ื™ื ืœืงื˜ืข ืกื™ื‘ื•ื‘ ื•ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื”ื•ืœื›ื™ ืจื’ืœ. ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ื•ืœืคื ื•ืช ืืช ืžืงื•ืžื ืœืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ืชื—ื™ืœื”. ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžื’ื™ืข ืœืื—ืช ืžืื•ืชืŸ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช, ืืœ ืชืฉื›ื— ืœืขืฆื•ืจ ื•ืœืชืช ืœืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ื’ืœื’ืœื™ื ื”ื ืขื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ.

ื›ืœืœ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื–ื” ื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžื—ื•ืงื™ ื”ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื” ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื ื”ื ืœืžื“ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ื”ื‘ื ืช ืžื”ื•ืช ืชืงื ื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื“ืจื™ืฉื” ืœื›ืœ ื ื”ื’ ืฉืืคืชืŸ ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื”.

ืžื”ื• ืขื™ื“ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื—ื•ืงื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื‘ื”ืชื‘ืกืก ืขืœ ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืื“ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืŸ 18 ืœืคื—ื•ืช. ืืœ ืชื”ืกืก ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื”ืชืงื ื•ืช ื”ืžืขื•ื“ื›ื ื•ืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืงื•ื•ืŸ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืคื ื™ื”. ื’ื•ืจื ืงืจื™ื˜ื™ ื ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื ืชืขื•ื“ืช ืกื™ื•ื ืžื›ืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”. ืœืื—ืจ ืืœื”, ืืชื” ืขืฉื•ื™ ืื™ื›ืฉื”ื• ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ื›ื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื”.

ืื ืฉื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืฆื”"ืœ. ืงืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฉื™ื’ ืื—ืช ืื ืืชื” ืžื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืืชืจ ืื™ื’ื•ื“ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™. ื›ืœ ืฉืขืœื™ืš ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืœืกืžืŸ ืืช ื›ืคืชื•ืจ ื”ื™ื™ืฉื•ื, ืœืžืœื ืืช ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ื ื”ืื™ืฉื™ื™ื, ื›ืžื• ืฉื, ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช, ืžืกืคืจ ืื™ืฉ ืงืฉืจ ื•ืžื™ืงื•ื“, ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื™ืฉืงืฃ ืืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”.

ื”ืื ื™ืฉ ื—ื•ืง ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ืคื”?

ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื›ื•ื•ืŸ ืžืขืœ ืจื›ื‘ ืื—ืจ ืื ื™ืฉ ื“ืจืš ืžื”ื™ืจื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื–ืืช. ืืœ ืชืžื”ืจ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื™ ืืชื” ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ืกืชื™ื™ื ื‘ืชืื•ื ืช ื“ืจื›ื™ื. ื”ื™ื” ืขืจื ื™ ืœืฆื“ื“ื™ื ืฉืœืš, ื•ื”ื™ื–ื”ืจ ื›ืฉื ืžืฆืื™ื ืงืฆื™ื ื™ ืกื™ื•ืจ. ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืขื•ืงืคืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืœื ื—ื•ืงื™, ื”ืชื›ื•ื ืŸ ืœื”ืกื“ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืกื ืงืฆื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืชืื™ืžื•ืช.

ื”ืื ืžืฆื ื–ืžืŸ ืœืงืจื•ื ื•ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื” ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื—ื•"ืœ. ื–ื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืžื” ืฉืœืžื“ืช ืžื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ืจืขื ื•ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืžื•ื— ืฉืœืš ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื.

ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืฆื“ ืฉืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ืชืกืข ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื”ืฆื“ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืฆื“ ื™ืžื™ืŸ. ืขืœ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœืœื›ืช ื‘ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ืช ืœืฆืืช ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉ. ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื›ื™ ืฆื™ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ื•. ืฆื—ืฆื— ืืช ืื•ืชื ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืขืงืฉื ื™ื ืฉื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืœื”ืคืจ ื›ืœืœื™ื. ืœืขื•ืœื ืืœ ืชืชื ื• ืœื ื”ื’ ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœ ืจื›ื‘ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืฉืชื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื•ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ืฉื™ื›ื•ืจ. ื”ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื”ืงืฉื” ื”ื™ื ืชื•ืฆืื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื” ืคืขื•ืœื”.

ืื ื‘ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืœื ืกื•ืช ืืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืฉืคืข ื“ืจืš ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”, ื”ืงืคื“ ืœืžืฆื•ื ื–ืžืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ ื•ื”ื™ืชืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™. ื”ืคื•ืš ืื•ืชื• ืœื ื•ื— ื•ื ื•ื— ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื‘ืืชืจ ื”ืชืื—ื“ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืœืžื™ื“ืข ื ื•ืกืฃ.

ื ื™ืžื•ืกื™ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ื”ืฆื’ืช ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื–ื›ื•ืช, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืื ืืชื ื‘ืฉื˜ื— ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™. ื–ื” ืžืฉืงืฃ ืืช ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช ื”ืžื˜ื•ืคื—ืช ืฉืœืš ืœืื ืฉื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืคื•ื’ืฉ. ื›ืฉืืชื ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ืืช ื”ืืชื’ืจ ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื”ืฆื’ืช ื ื™ืžื•ืกื™ื ื ืื•ืชื™ื ื”ื™ื ื—ื•ื‘ื”. ื‘ื›ืš ืชื•ื›ืœ ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืขืœ ื“ืจืš ื™ืขื™ืœื” ื•ื™ืขื™ืœื” ืœืคืชื•ืจ ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืฉืืชื” ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืื™ืชืŸ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืฉืœืš. ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื’ื ืœื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืจื•ืฉื ืžืจืชืง ืขืœ ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืืจืฅ.

ืขื ื•ื•ื” ื”ื™ื ืขืจืš ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืœืชืจื’ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืฆื‘ ื‘ื• ืืชื” ืขื•ืžื“. ื–ื”ื• ื’ื ืžืคืชื— ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืืชื™ืงื” ืฉืœืš ื•ืœื”ื“ื’ื™ื ืืช ืขืžื“ืชืš ื”ืžืฉื›ื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื™ืœื•ื™ ื”ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื•ืชืš ื—ื•ืงืจ ืžื•ื“ืœ ืœื—ื™ืงื•ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื—ื•"ืœ.

ืžื” ืื ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืžืชืงืœืงืœืช?

ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื”ืืจื“ืงื•ืจ ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื ื•ื˜ื™ื ืœื—ืจื•ื’ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืงื™ืœื•ืžื˜ืจื™ื. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื›ืžื” ืžื”ื ื ื•ื˜ื™ื ืœืฉื›ื•ื— ืœืจืฉื•ื ืžื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ืžืงืจื” ื—ื™ืจื•ื. ื”ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื ื‘ื”ืœื™ื ื•ื—ืจื“ื™ื ืžื”ื”ืฉืœื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื ืœืฉืงื•ืœ ืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ืœืžืฆื‘ ืžืกื•ื’ ื–ื”, ืฉื”ื•ื ืœื ื’ื“ื•ืœ. ืื ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืืชื” ื—ื•ื•ื” ืฆืจื•ืช ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ, ืืœ ืชื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื”ื™ื‘ื”ืœ. ื–ื” ืœื ื™ื‘ื™ื ืฉื•ื ืชื•ืฆืื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจืš.

ืงืจื ืœื”ืœืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ื•ืช ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ืคืขื•ืœื” ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ืงื•ื˜ ืื ืืชื” ื ืชืงืœ ื‘ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืฉื”ืชืงืœืงืœื” ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื”ื“ืจืš.

  • ืชืžืจืŸ ืืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื˜ื•ื—.

ืื ื”ืื™ื ืกื˜ื™ื ืงื˜ ืฉืœืš ืื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืฉืžืฉื”ื• ืžื•ื–ืจ ืงื•ืจื” ื‘ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš, ืืœ ืชื”ืกืก ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืื•ืชื•. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืขืฉื” ื–ืืช, ื”ื’ื“ืจ ืืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืชืš ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ื•ื—. ื”ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืกืข ืฉืœืš. ื”ื‘ื”ื‘ ืžื™ื“ ืืช ื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืคื’ืข ืฉืœืš ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื–ื”ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื ืฉืืชื” ื ืชืงืœ ื‘ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš.

  • ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื• ืืช ืžืฉื•ืœืฉื™ ื”ืื–ื”ืจื” ื•ืœื‘ืฉื• ืืช ื–'ืงื˜ ื”ืจืคืœืงื˜ื™ื‘.

ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืืชื” ืžื—ื•ืฃ ืืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืชืš ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืžืื•ื‘ื˜ื—, ืงื— ืืช ื”ืžืขื™ืœ ื”ืžืฉืงืฃ ื•ืžืฉื•ืœืฉื™ ื”ืื–ื”ืจื”. ื”ืงืคื“ ืœื‘ืจืจ ืขื ืกืคืง ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš ื›ื™ ืœืจื›ื‘ ื”ื”ืฉื›ืจื” ืฉืœืš ื™ืฉ ืขืจื›ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื•ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืžืœื. ืขื›ืฉื™ื•, ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืืชื” ืžืกืชืคืง ื‘ื”ื™ืœื•ื›ื™ื, ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฆืืช ืžื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš. ืžืงื ืืช ืžืฉื•ืœืฉื™ ื”ืื–ื”ืจื” ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ ื›- 50 ืžื˜ืจ ืžื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš. ื–ื” ืžืกืคื™ืง ื›ื“ื™ ืœืกืžืŸ ืืช ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืžืกื‘ื™ื‘.

  • ืืœ ืชืืคืฉืจ ืœืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืฉืœืš ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ืืช ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช.

ืืœ ืชืกื›ืŸ ืืช ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื“ื™ื™ืจื™ืš. ื–ื›ื•ืจ ืฉืืชื” ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ืจื”. ืืชื” ืืฃ ืคืขื ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืžืกืคื™ืง ืฉื”ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืฉืœืš ื ืงื™ื™ื” ืžืกื›ื ื”. ืืœ ืชืชื ื• ืœืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืฉืœื›ื ืœืฆืืช ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ื—ื™ืจื•ื. ืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ืคืขื•ื˜ื•ืชื™ืš ื•ืื ืฉื™ื ืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืขืช.

  • ืฆืจื• ืงืฉืจ ืขื ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ืช ืฉืœื›ื ืœืงื‘ืœืช ืขื–ืจื” ืžื™ื™ื“ื™ืช ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ.

ื›ืฉื ืจืื” ืฉืืชื” ืžืชืงืฉื” ืœืชืงืŸ ืืช ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืฉืœืš, ื•ืืชื” ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืฉืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืื™ืฉ ืžืงืฆื•ืข, ืื—ื– ื‘ืกืžืืจื˜ืคื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš ื•ื—ื™ื™ื’ ืืช ืžืกืคืจ ืกื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืฉื›ืจืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš. ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ ืœื‘ืงืฉ ืืช ืคืจื˜ื™ ื”ืงืฉืจ ืฉืœ ื”ืื—ืจืื™ ื‘ืฉื›ื™ืจื•ืชืš. ื–ื” ื™ื—ืกื•ืš ืžืžืš ื“ืื’ื•ืช ื•ืžืชื—.

  • ืงืจืื• ืœื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืœืงื‘ืœืช ืชื’ื•ื‘ื” ืžื”ื™ืจื”.

ื”ื”ืžืชื ื” ืœืขื–ืจืช ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืขืฉื•ื™ื” ืœื”ื™ืžืฉืš ื–ืžืŸ ืžื” ืขื“ ืฉืชื’ื™ืข. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืื ืืชื” ื ืชืงืข ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช, ืืชื” ื‘ืจ ืžื–ืœ ืžืกืคื™ืง ื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืชื’ื•ื‘ื” ื™ืฉื™ืจื” ืžื™ื“. ืื‘ืœ, ืื ืืชื” ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ืžืจื•ื—ืง, ืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžื”ื™ืจ ื•ืœื”ื–ืขื™ืง ืืช ืขื–ืจืช ื”ืชื•ืฉื‘. ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื”ื ืื“ื™ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžื›ื‘ื“ื™ื, ื›ืš ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืงืฉื” ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื™ืชื. ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืจืฉืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืืš ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืกืฆื•ื•ืื ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ื•ืช ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืคืœื•ืก ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื.

ืžื” ืื ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืชืขืฆื•ืจ ืื•ืชืš?

ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ื™ืขื‘ืจื• ื›ื›ืœ ื”ื ืจืื” ื‘ืชื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื ื—ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื‘ื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื‘ื–ื™ืžื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ื›ืœ ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ื ื›ื ืกื™ื ืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœืฆื™ื™ืช ืœืคืจื•ื˜ื•ืงื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืžื”. ื™ืฉ ืžืงืจื™ื ื ื“ื™ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ืงืฆื™ืŸ ื™ืขื•ืจืจ ืืช ืชืฉื•ืžืช ืœื‘ืš. ื—ื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš ืžื™ื™ื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ื—ืฉื“.

ื›ืฉืืชื” ื ืชืงืœ ื‘ืชื—ื ืช ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืื• ืฉืื•ื›ื ืช ืชื ื•ืขื” ืžื‘ืจื›ืช ืื•ืชืš, ืชืŸ ืœื”ื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื ืขื™ืžื”. ื”ืจืฉื• ืœื”ื ืœื”ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืฉืงืจืืชื ืœื›ื. ืขืœ ืคื™ ื‘ืงืฉืชื, ื”ืฆื™ื’ื• ืืช ืžืกืžื›ื™ ื”ื ืกื™ืขื•ืช ืฉืœื›ื, ื›ื•ืœืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”, ื”- IDP ื•ื”ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ. ืื ื”ื ืžื–ืžื™ื ื™ื ืื•ืชืš ืœื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ื›ืœื, ื‘ืงืฉ ืžื”ื ืฆื• ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืืชื” ื ืชืคืก ืœืคืขื•ืœื”.

ืžื” ืื ืืชื” ืžื‘ืงืฉ ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช?

ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื™ืฉ ืฉืชื™ ืฉืคื•ืช ืขื™ืงืจื™ื•ืช. ื”ื ืื•ื ื”ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกืœื™, ืฉื”ื•ื ืื ื’ืœื™ืช, ื”ื•ื ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืจืฉืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืกืฆื•ื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ืฉืคื” ื”ื–ืจื” ืžืฉืžืฉืช ืœืขืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืขื“ื™ื ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืกืคืืจื™ ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™, ืฉืคืช ื”ืื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืžื” ืฉื”ืจื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื›ืคืจื™ื™ื. ืžืืžืฅ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืืช ื”ื ื™ื‘ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืฉืื™ืจ ืจื•ืฉื ืžืจืชืง ืขืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื.

ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžื ื•ื•ื˜ ืืช ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸืš ื‘ืžืคื” ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื›ืžื” ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื ืžื‘ื•ื“ื“ื™ื. ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืฉื™ืฉ ื“ืจื›ื™ื ืฉืืคืœื™ืงืฆื™ื™ืช ื ื™ื•ื•ื˜ ืœื ืžื–ื”ื”. ื‘ืžืงืจื” ื–ื”, ื‘ืงืฉืช ืขื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื–ืจื— ื‘ืชื•ื ืœื‘ ื”ื™ื ื”ืคื™ืชืจื•ืŸ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื™ื™ื ื”ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื ืฉืœ ืกื˜ืกื•ื•ืื ื” ืฉืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื›ืฉืชืจืฆื” ืœื‘ืงืฉ ื”ื ื—ื™ื”.

  • ืฉืœื•ื!
  • ืฉืœื•ื!
  • ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื˜ื•ื‘! (ืœืื“ื ืื—ื“)
  • ื“ื•ืžืœื”!
  • ืกืœื— ืœื™
  • ื ื˜ืฉื•ื•ืืจืœื”
  • ื”ืื ืืชื” ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืื ื’ืœื™ืช?
  • ืื• ื‘ื•ืื” Sekhowa?
  • ื›ืŸ ืœื
  • Ea / Aua
  • ืžืื™ืคื” ืืชื”?
  • Ko gae ke kae?
  • ื‘ื‘ืงืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจ ืœืื˜ ื™ื•ืชืจ.
  • ื‘ื•ืื” ืงื ื‘ื•ื ื™ื”
  • ืืชื” ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืฆื•ื•ืื ื”?
  • A o bua Setswana?
  • ื‘ื‘ืงืฉื” ืชืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื™.
  • Ke kopa thuso
  • ืื™ืš ืื ื™ ืžื’ื™ืข ืœืฉื“ื” ื”ืชืขื•ืคื”?
  • Ke goroga jang koo maemelo a difofance?

ืžื” ืื ื™ืฉ ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื?

ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ ืฉืœ ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื ื”ื•ื ืคื™ืงื•ื— ื•ืคื™ืงื•ื— ืขืœ ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืกืขื™ื ืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ื‘ืงืคื“ื ื•ืช. ื–ื” ื’ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืืช ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืจื•ืฆื•ืช ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื“ื™ืžื•ื™ ื ื˜ื•ืœ ื”ืกื›ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช. ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื“ืจื™ืš ืื•ืชืš ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื”ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ื™ื™ื ืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืœืงืฆื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื, ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ื.

  • ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื–ืจ
  • ืžึทืกืœื•ึผืœ
  • ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื–ื™ื”ื•ื™ ืœืื•ืžื™ืช (ืื ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™)
  • ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžืงื•ืžื™
  • ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ (IDP)
  • ืจื™ืฉื•ื ืจื›ื‘ ืฉื›ื•ืจ

ื”ื™ื–ื”ืจ ื’ื ืžืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ ืžื—ืœื•ืช ื”ืคื” ื•ื”ืคื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ื•. ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื›ืœืœื™, ืขืœื™ืš ืœืฆืืช ืžื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš ื•ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืกื™ื ื•ืŸ ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืจืคื•ืื™. ืื ื‘ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืœื‘ืฆืข ืขืกืงื” ื—ืœืงื” ื‘ืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื, ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืื• ื”ืžื›ื•ื ื” IDP. ืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืฃ ืื™ื’ื•ื“ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืกื™ื™ืข ืœืš ื‘ื‘ืงืฉื” ืฉืœืš.

ืžืฆื‘ื™ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื•ืชื ืื™ ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ืœื—ืฆื•ืช ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื–ื” ืจืขื™ื•ืŸ ื™ืฆื™ืจืชื™. ื”ื’ื™ืฉื” ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืจืืฉื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื‘ืกื“ืจ ื’ืžื•ืจ ื•ืžืฆื•ื™ืŸ. ืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื–ื• ื™ืฉ ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช ื›ืžื• ื ืžื™ื‘ื™ื” ื•ื–ื™ืžื‘ื‘ื•ื•ื”. ื›ืฉื ื•ืกืขื™ื ื‘ืขื ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ ื–ื”, ืขืœื™ื›ื ืœื”ื™ื–ื”ืจ ื›ืฉืืชื ืžืชืงืจื‘ื™ื ืœืื–ื•ืจื™ ืกื™ื‘ื•ื‘ ื•ืžืขื‘ืจื™ ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ ืจื’ืœ.

ืขืœ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขืจื ื™ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ื ื‘ื”ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืžืกื•ื™ืžื™ื. ืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ืžื•ืงืคื“ ื•ืžื•ืงืคื“ ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื›ืฉืžื‘ืฆืขื™ื ื”ืคืœื’ื” ื‘ื ืกื™ืขื” ืืจื•ื›ื”. ืชื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืžื ื•ื—ื” ืจื—ื•ืงื•ืช ืœืžื“ื™ ื–ื• ืžื–ื•, ื•ื”ืฆืžื™ื’ื™ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื ืฉื•ื‘ ืคืชืื•ื. ื”ืงืคื™ื“ื• ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ื–ืืช ืžื“ื™ ืคืขื ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืขื ืง ื‘ื“ืจืš.

ื›ืžื” ืชื›ื•ืคื•ืช ืชืื•ื ื•ืช ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื”ื“ื•"ื— ืฉืœ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื”ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœืžื™ (WHO) ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืงื•ื‘ืข ื›ื™ ืขื•ื“ ื‘ืฉื ืช 2018 ืชืื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขืœื• ืœ -3.16% ืื• ืฉื•ื•ืช ืขืจืš ืœ -470 ื”ืจื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ื”ืฉื•ื•ืื” ืœืฉื ืช 2017. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื”ื™ื ื™ื•ืจื“ืช ื‘ืจืฆื™ืคื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ืช 2019 ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืจืง ืคื—ื•ืช ืž- 400 ื‘ืฉื™ื. ื”ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœืชืื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ืจืฉืœื ื•ืช ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช ื‘ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื”.

ืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ืชื™ืขื•ื“ ื”ืกื˜ื˜ื™ืกื˜ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืจื•ื’ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ืœืฆืืช ืœื“ืจืš ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื‘ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”, ื”ืฉื ื”ืงื•ืœืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืชื•ืืžืช ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืืช ืชื•ื•ื™ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ื™ื ืœื›ืš. ื›ืœ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืกื‘ื•ืœ ื“ื•ื’ืžื” ืžืฆื•ื™ื ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื.

ืžื”ื ื›ืœื™ ื”ืจื›ื‘ ื”ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืœื—ื–ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืคื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื” ื”ื™ื ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื”ืžื•ืฉืœืžืช ืœื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื•ื˜ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืื˜ืจืงืฆื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืจืชืงื•ืช ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื”ืคื ื˜ืช. ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืœืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ื• ื™ืฉ ืžืขืจื›ืช ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจื” ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ืช, ืจื‘ื™ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืขื“ื™ืคื™ื ืœืฉื›ื•ืจ ืจื›ื‘ ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื ืฉืจืง ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืืจื‘ืขื” ื’ืœื’ืœื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื’ืฉืช ืืœื™ื”ื. ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืกื•ื’ ืจื›ื‘ ืฉื›ื•ืจ ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉ, ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื”ืกืคืง ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื’ืžื”.

ืœืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœื”ืชื ืกื•ืช ื‘ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืขืฆืžื™ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื“ืื’ื• ืœืงืœื•ืข ืืช ืจื›ื‘ ื” 4x4 ื”ืžืชืื™ื ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉื ื ืชื ืื™ ื“ืจืš ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ืœืžื“ื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื“ื• ื’ืœื’ืœื™ืช.

ื”ืื ื”ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘- Kph ืื• Mph?

ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื•ืง ื”ื’ื‘ืœืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื™ื—ื™ื“ืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื ืžืฆืืช ื‘ืงืž"ืฉ. ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืืžื•ืจื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœื—ืคืฉ ื–ืืช ื‘ืจืฉืช. ื‘ื›ืš ื”ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœืœ. ื—ืจื™ื’ื” ืžืกื™ืžืŸ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ ืชื‘ื™ื ืœื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ืœื”ืขืžื“ืช ืžื˜ืขื ื™ื.

ืžื”ื ืžืฆื‘ื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ื”ืžื•ืคืข ืฉืœ ืขื•ืžืกื™ ืชื ื•ืขื” ืงื•ืจื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืฉื”ื•ื ื’ืื‘ื•ืจื•ืŸ. ืื‘ืœ, ืชื”ื™ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ืฉื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ืขื‘ื™ืจื™ื ื•ื ื”ื“ืจื™ื. ืืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืจืคื•ืช ืžื”ื“ื™ืœืžื•ืช ื•ื”ืกืคืงื•ืช ืฉืœืš ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ืคืงืงื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื–ื•. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืœื”ื•ืœื›ื™ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื ื• ืœื”ื ืืช ื”ืžืจื—ื‘ ืœื—ืœื•ืฃ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื”ื. ื”ื›ืจืช ืžืฆื‘ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืืชื” ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื™ืœื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื”ืชืื™ื ื•ืœืฆืคื•ืช ื›ืฉืืชื” ืคื•ื’ืข ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ ื”ืืจืฅ.

ื”ืื ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื?

ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืื“ืžืช ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”, ืื™ืŸ ืกืคืง ื›ื™ ื™ื“ื•ืข ื›ื™ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ืžืฆื™ื™ืชื™ื ืœื›ืœืœื™ ื”ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื”. ืœืœื ืงืฉืจ ืœืื•ื, ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื ืื•ืชื” ื‘ื ื”ื™ื’ื”. ืืœ ืชื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืคืขืžื™ื™ื ืื ืื™ื ืš ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ื”ื’ื” ืœื‘ื“. ื”ืชืงืฉืจ ืžื™ื“ ืœื’ื™ื‘ื•ื™. ืœืขื•ืœื ืืœ ืชื™ืชืŸ ืœืขืฆืžืš ืœื”ืคืจ ืืช ื›ืœืœ ื”ืฉืชื™ื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”.

ื”ืื ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืืคืฉืจื™ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืœืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ื”ืกืงืจื ื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืขืฆืžื™ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ืขืจื‘, ื–ื” ืžืกื•ื›ืŸ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื–ืืช. ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื ื™ื™ืจืื• ืœืจืื™ื™ืชื ื•ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื—ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืฉืš. ืœืฆืžื™ื’ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืกื™ื›ื•ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืชืคื•ืฆืฅ.

ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ืคื™ื ื•ืงื™ื ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืขื•ืกืงื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื™ืช ื–ื• - ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืฉืžื•ืฆืื™ื ืืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืกื•ื—ืคืช ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืฆืขื“ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืœ ื”ืจืคืชืงืื•ืช ื•ืคืจืง ืœืงื—ืช. ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืฉืคืจ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืฉืœืš ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืขืฆื•ื ืฉืœ ืžื“ื™ื ืช ืกืคืืจื™ ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื–ื•, ื”ื’ื™ืข ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืœื—ืงื•ืจ ืืช ืื™ื ืกืคื•ืจ ื”ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื•ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”. ืื‘ืœ, ืขืœื™ื›ื ืœืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื•ืืฉืจื•ืช ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื—ื•ืงื™ื•ืช.

ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื™ืชืจ ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ื™ ืžืกื•ื‘ืš. ืงืฆื™ื ื™ ื”ื”ื’ื™ืจื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ืžื”ืžื•ืขืžื“ื™ื ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื”ื—ื•ื•ื™ื” ืฉื•ื•ื” ืœื ืกื•ืช. ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืื–ื•ืจ ืืคืจื™ืงื” ื–ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืชืคื•ืก ื”ืฆืขืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžืžืกืคืจ ืžืฉืจื•ืช ืคื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื ืžื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœื”ื™ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”.

ื”ืื ืื•ื›ืœ ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื›ืชื™ื™ืจ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืื–ืจื— ื–ืจ ืฉื—ื•ืœื ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืื‘ื˜ื— ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ื ื”ื’ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืชืงืฃ ื•ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ืžืกืคื™ืง ืœื”ืคืขืœืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ืืจื‘ืขื” ื’ืœื’ืœื™ื. ืื–ืจื—ื™ ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื ื™ื”, ื‘ืขืœื™ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืขื•ื‘ื“, ืจืฉืื™ื ืœื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืงื”ื™ืœืช ื”ืกืคืืจื™ ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ืžืขื•ื“ื“ืช ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™. ืชืคื•ืก IDP ืžืื™ื’ื•ื“ ื”ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืงืœ ืœื”ืฉื™ื’ ืื•ืชื•.

ื‘ื”ื™ื•ืชื ืžื‘ืงืจื™ื ืื—ืจืื™ื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”, ืฉืื™ื ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื–ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืคืขื•ืœ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื•ืงื™ ืฉืชื™ื™ืช ื”ืืœื›ื•ื”ื•ืœ ื•ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ืืœ ืชื ืกื” ืœืฆืืช ื ื’ื“ ื”ื›ืœืœ ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืคืจ ืขืœื•ืœ ืœืขื•ื ืฉ ืžืงืกื™ืžืœื™ ื‘ื’ื™ื ื•. ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืฉื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืกืชื›ืœื•ืช ืกื‘ื™ื‘.

ื”ืื ืื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ืžื•ืขืžื“ื•ืช ื›ื ื”ื’ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืฉืืคืชื ื™ื ื‘ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื”ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื”ื–ื•, ื”ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืกื“ืจ ืืช ืขืฆืžื ืขื ื‘ืœื•ืงื™ื ืฉืœ ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง. ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืชืขืกื•ืงื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืื™ื ื• ืงืœ ื›ืžื• ืฉืืชื” ื—ื•ืฉื‘. ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื“ื•ืจืฉื•ืช ืžืžื‘ืงืฉ ื”ื•ื›ื—ืช ื—ื•ื–ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืชื—ืช ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช ืฉื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืฉื™ืคื•ื˜ืŸ. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื‘ืขื™ื‘ื•ื“ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ื›ืžื• ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื, ืขืœื™ื”ื ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืจืื™ื•ืช ืœืคืจืกื•ื ืžืฉืจื•ืช ื•ืžื“ื•ืข ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืื™ื ื• ืžืชืื™ื.

ื”ืกืžื›ื” ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ืช ื ื•ืกืคืช ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ืขืžื“ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื—ื•ืงื™ ืœื”ืคืขืœืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื ืขื”. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ืขืœ ื”ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื–ืจ ืชืงืฃ. ื”ืžืจื” ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืืคืฉืจื™ืช, ืืš ื™ืฉ ืœื‘ืฆืข ื ื”ืœื™ื ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœื”ืžื™ืจ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื–ืจ ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžื•ืœื“ืชื ืชืžื•ืจืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ืชื’ื•ืจืจ ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื›ืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื–ืจ ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ืจืฉืื™ื ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื• ืขื“ 90 ื™ื•ื. ืœืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ื ืฉืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ืžื•ืขืžื“ื•ืช, ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ืจืฉื ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื•ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื—ื•ืงื™.

ืœืงื‘ืœืช ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืžืœื ืœื”ืกื‘ื” ืื• ื”ื—ืœืคื” ืฉืœ ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืฉืœืš ืœืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”, ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš ื•ืงื— ืืช ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืขืช ื”ื’ืฉืช ื”ื‘ืงืฉื”.

  • ื˜ื•ืคืก ื‘ืงืฉืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืฉื”ื•ืฉืœื ื‘ืžืœื•ืื• (DL1)
  • ืขื•ืชืง ืžืงื•ืจื™ ื•ืžืื•ืžืช ืฉืœ ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื–ืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฉื’ืจื™ืจื•ืช ืื• ื”ืงื•ื ืกื•ืœื™ื”
  • ืžื›ืชื‘ ืœื’ื™ื˜ื™ืžืฆื™ื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืคืง ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืงื•ื ืกื•ืœื™ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืื• ื”ืฉื’ืจื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื‘ืงืฉ
  • ืขื•ืชืง ืืžืชื™ ืžื•ืกืžืš ืฉืœ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื–ื”ื•ืช ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืชืงืคื”
  • ื”ืขืชืง ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ
  • ื”ืขืชืง ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืื•ืฉืจ ืฉืœ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ืคื˜ื•ืจ / ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืฉื”ื™ื™ื” / ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”
  • ืื’ืจืช ื‘ืงืฉื” ืฉืœ BWP91.00

ืžื”ื ื”ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืช ืžื‘ื—ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืคืขืœืช ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช ื ืขื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื ื™ื’ืฉื™ื ืœืžื‘ื—ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ื‘ื”ืฉื’ื—ืช ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžื•ื›ืจ, ื”ื ื‘ื—ื ื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืกื“ืจืช ืžื‘ื—ื ื™ ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื”, ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื—ื™ื ื•ืช ืžืขืฉื™ื•ืช. ืžื•ืขืžื“ื™ื ืจืฉืื™ื ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืืช ื”ื‘ื—ื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืงื•ื•ืŸ. ื”ื™ืขื ื•ืช ืœืžื‘ื—ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื”ื™ื ื™ืขื“ ืžื ื™ืข ืœื”ืฆื™ื‘.

ืขื ื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ืขื ื”ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื”ืžืขืฉื™ืช, ืœื”ืœืŸ ื˜ื™ืคื™ื ืžื”ื™ืจื™ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœื”ืฉื™ื’ ื”ืขืจื” ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืขืœ ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ.

  • ื‘ื“ื•ืง ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื”ื™ื˜ื‘ ืืช ืžืฆื‘ ื”ืจื›ื‘. ื•ื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืš ืืช ื”ื™ื“ืข ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืืช ื”ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื›ื•ื ื™ืช.
  • ื”ืชื—ืœ ืœื”ืชืงื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืจืื•ืช ื”ืฆื“ื“ื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ืื—ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืœืคืช ื”ืžื ื•ืข. ื‘ืฆืข ืคื ื™ื•ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืขืช ื”ืืฆื”, ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ื ืชื™ื‘ื™ื, ื ืกื™ืขื” ืœืื—ื•ืจ ื•ื—ื ื™ื”.
  • ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ื›ืฉืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœืงื˜ืข ืžืขื‘ืจ ื”ื—ืฆื™ื™ื”. ืชืŸ ืœืื ืฉื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืงื•ื“ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืžืฉื™ืš ืงื“ื™ืžื”.
  • ื—ืคืฉื• ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ืฉืคืชืื•ื ื™ืชืงืจื‘ื• ืืœื™ื›ื. ืชืŸ ืœื”ื ืื•ืช ืื ื”ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืžื“ื™.
  • ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœืฆื™ื™ืช ืœืกื™ืžื ื™ ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช, ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื ื•ืชืžืจื•ืจื™ื.
  • ื›ืฉืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื›ื™ื›ืจ, ืคื ื• ืืช ืžืงื•ืžื›ื ืœืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืคื ื™ื›ื.
  • ื”ื™ื–ื”ืจื• ืžื ื”ื’ื™ื ืคื–ื™ื–ื™ื. ืืœ ืชืชื ื• ืœื”ื ืœืชืกื›ืœ ืืชื›ื.
  • ืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจ ื”ื”ืขืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืžืœืฆื•ืช ื‘ืžืคืช ื”ื ื™ื•ื•ื˜ ื‘ืขืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”.

ื”ืื ืื•ื›ืœ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ื›ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”?

ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ืงืจื™ืื” ืื•ื“ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืžืฉืจื•ืช ืคื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืžืฆื•ื ื’ื ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืœืฆื•ื•ืช ืžื“ืจื™ื›ื™ ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื ืชื—ืช ืกื•ื›ื ื•ืช ื”ืชื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืžืœื‘ื“ ื”ืฆื’ืช ื—ื•ื–ื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืขืช ื”ื’ืฉืช ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœื”ื™ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”, ืขืœื™ืš ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื™ื ืืช ืคืจืกื•ื ื”ืžืฉืจื” ื”ืคื ื•ื™ื” ื•ืžืกื™ื‘ื” ืชืงืคื” ืžื“ื•ืข ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืื™ื ื• ื–ื›ืื™. ืขื™ื‘ื•ื“ ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืžืขื™ื™ืฃ, ืืš ื–ื” ื™ืฉืชืœื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืชืงื‘ืœ ืžืขืžื“ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ.

ืงืฆื™ื ื™ ืงื•ื ืกื•ืœื™ื” ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื‘ืงืฉ ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื•ืขืžื“. ื›ืžื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืžืฉืื™ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื”ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžื‘ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื™ืชืจ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœื›ืš. ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืฉื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื”ืžืคื•ืจื˜ื™ื ืœื”ืœืŸ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืžื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืงื•ื ืกื•ืœ.

  • ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื–ืจ ืชืงืฃ
  • ืขื•ืชืง ืžืื•ืžืช ืฉืœ ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื–ืจ (ื“ืฃ ื‘ื™ื•)
  • ืฉืชื™ ืงื˜ืขื™ ืชืฆืœื•ื ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืคืกืคื•ืจื˜ ืขื ืจืงืข ืœื‘ืŸ
  • ื”ืขืชืง ืฉืœ ืžืกืžืš ืคืจืกื•ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” (ืœื ื™ืื•ื—ืจ ืžื—ืฆื™ ืฉื ื”)
  • ื—ื•ื–ื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”
  • ืžื›ืชื‘ ื‘ืงืฉืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” (ืขื ื—ืชื™ืžื” ืžืงื•ืจื™ืช)
  • ืžื›ืชื‘ ืžื™ื ื•ื™
  • ืงื•ืจื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื
  • ืขื•ืชืงื™ื ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื (ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ื•ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ื”ืกืžื›ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”)
  • ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ ืื™ืฉื•ืจ

ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ืœื ื”ื’ื™ ืžืฉืื™ื•ืช:

  • ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”
  • BA ื”ื™ืชืจ

ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ื›ื™ ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ืืœื” ื™ื—ื•ืœื• ืจืง ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ืขืžื“ื™ื ืชื—ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืžืฉืื™ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”. ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžืกื•ื’ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื›ื‘ื“ื”, ื›ืš ืฉืงืฆื™ื ื™ ื”ื”ื’ื™ืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ืฉื”ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ืžืกืคื™ืง ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ืจื›ื‘ ื’ื“ื•ืœ.

ื”ืื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœืฉื”ื™ื™ื” ื›ื ื”ื’?

ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ื”ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื–ื• ื–ื›ืื™ื ืื•ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื™ืช ืœืžื’ื•ืจื™ื ื–ืžื ื™ื™ื. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืื ื”ื™ืขื“ ื”ื•ื ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืงื‘ืข, ืขืœื™ื”ื ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืœื™ืš ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ ืื—ืจ ืœื”ืฉื’ืชื•. ื›ืœ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื™ื ื–ื›ืื™ื. ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืฉืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื ื”ื’ื™ื ื”ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื•ื“ 14 ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืื• ื‘ืžื“ืจื™ื›ื™ ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ื. ื›ืœ ืขื•ื“ ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ื•ืฉืœืžื•, ื–ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœืœื›ืช.

ืœืžื™ ืฉืจื•ืฆื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ืฉื”ื™ื™ื”, ืงืจื ืขื•ื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื•ืช ืœื™ื™ืฉื•ื. ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ืฉืงื™ื‘ืœื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”, ื”ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื‘ื™ื ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื™ื.

  • ื”ืขืชืง ืžืื•ืฉืจ ืฉืœ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ืœื™ื“ื”
  • ืฉื ื™ ืชืฆืœื•ืžื™ ืฆื‘ืข ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื
  • ืขื•ืชืง ืžืื•ืžืช ืฉืœ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ (ืœื ืฉื™ื ื ืฉื•ืื•ืช)
  • ืชืขื•ื“ื” ืจืคื•ืื™ืช ืœื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื’ื•ืคื ื™ืช
  • ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”
  • ืžื›ืชื‘ ืชืžื™ื›ื”
  • ืขื•ืชืงื™ื ืžืื•ืฉืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื
  • ื—ื•ื–ื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”
  • ืžื›ืชื‘ ืžื™ื ื•ื™
  • ื“ืžื™ ืžื’ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืกืš 1500 BWP

ื”ื™ืขื“ื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ื˜ื™ื•ืœื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”

ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืฉื•ืคืขืช ื‘ืฉืžื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ืœื›ืŸ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืจื’ืฉื™ื ืœืžืกืข ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืชื™. ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืืคืจื™ืงืื™ืช ื–ื• ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื›ืื—ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืื–ื•ืจ ื“ืจื•ื ืืคืจื™ืงื”. ืื–, ืœืฆืืช ืœืžืกืข ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืงืฉื” ืœืงื—ืช.

ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื ืคืœืื” ื–ื• ืžืชื’ืื” ื‘ื’ืื•ื•ื” ื‘ืคืืจืงื™ื ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ื”ืคื ื˜ืกื˜ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื”, ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื•ืช ืกืคืืจื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื‘ืคื ื™ ื—ืŸ ืžืคืชื•ืช ืฉืœื ืžืคืกื™ืงื•ืช ืœื”ื“ื”ื™ื ืืช ื”ืชื™ื™ืจื™ื. ืคื ืงื• ืืช ืขืฆืžื›ื ื‘ื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืžืจื’ื™ืข ื’ื•ืจื ืœื›ื ืœืจืฆื•ืช ืœืžืฆื•ื ื”ืฆืขืช ืžื—ื™ืจ ืžื•ืฉืœืžืช ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขื•ื“ื“ ืืชื›ื ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืื ืืชื” ื”ื•ืœืš ืœื—ืคืฉ ืืช ื”ืžืกืข ื”ืžืกืงืจืŸ ืื—ืจ ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช, ื”ื‘ื™ื ืืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”, ื”- IDP, ื”ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืฉืœืš.

ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฆ'ื•ื‘ื™

ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฆ'ื•ื‘ื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉืžื•ืจืช ืžืฉื—ืง ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื™ื•ืฆืื™ ื“ื•ืคืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืื–ื•ืจ ืืคืจื™ืงื”. ื–ื”ื• ื’ื ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืœื• ืžืกื•ื’ื• ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื”ืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ื”ื–ื” ืžืชืื™ื ืœื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ืฉืื•ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจ ื™ืฆื™ืจื•ืชื™ื”ื ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื‘ืข. ืžืงื•ืจ ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืคืืจืง ืžืงื•ืจื• ื‘ื ื”ืจ ืฆ'ื•ื‘ื™. ื”ื ื”ืจ ื”ืืžื•ืจ ืžืฉืžืฉ ื›ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืชืžื™ื›ื” ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ื‘ืžื™ื ื ื›ืžื• ื‘ื‘ื•ื ื™ื, ืืจื™ื•ืช, ื’'ื™ืจืคื•ืช, ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ื, ืคื™ืœื™ื ื•ืชืื•.

ื—ื•ืงืจื™ ืกืคืืจื™ ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืžืงื“ ืืช ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืคืืจืง ื–ื” ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื•ืช ืžืื™ ืขื“ ืื•ืงื˜ื•ื‘ืจ. ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ืงื˜ืข ื”ื ื”ืจ ื™ื‘ืฉ. ืœื›ืŸ, ืกื™ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื”ืจ ื”ื•ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื•ืช ืืœื”. ื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžื ืกื™ืขื” ืœืคืืจืง ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ืžืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜ ืขื“ ืกืคื˜ืžื‘ืจ, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื–ื• ื”ืขื•ื ื” ื”ื—ืžื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื ื”.

ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื”:

ืื ืืชื” ืžื’ื™ืข ืžื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืจืืฉื™ ืฉืœ ืงืกื ื”, ืงื— ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ / A33:

  • ืกืขื• ืœืงื˜ืข ื”ื“ืจื•ื ืžื–ืจื—ื™ ืขืœ Chilwero Rd, ืœื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ Plateau.
  • ื›ืฉืชื’ื™ืขื• ืœ- Upper Rd / A33, ืคื ื• ื™ืžื™ื ื”.
  • ืคื ื™ื™ื” ื ื•ืกืคืช ื™ืžื™ื ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืคืืจืง ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฆ'ื•ื‘ื™, ื•ืื– ืœืืชืจ ืื–ื•ืจ ื—ื ื™ื”.

ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืฆื ืœื“ืจืš ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื–ื•, ื”ื’ืฉืช ื‘ืงืฉื” ืœื ื’ื™ืฃ ื”ื™ื ื—ื•ื‘ื”. ื–ื›ื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ืขืช ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื”ื™ืชืจ ื”ื‘ืœืขื“ื™, ืขืœื™ืš ืœืกืคืง ืืช ืคืจื˜ื™ ื”ืžื™ื“ืข ืฉืœืš ื‘ื˜ื•ืคืก ื”ื‘ืงืฉื”. ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืœืœ ืืช ืฉืžืš ื”ืžืœื, ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชืš, ืžืกืคืจ ืื™ืฉ ื”ืงืฉืจ ื•ืžื™ืงื•ื“ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืœืš, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื—ื•ื‘ื” ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ื˜ืกื•ืื ื”.

ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ืฆื•ื“ื™ืœื•

ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ืฆื•ื“ื™ืœื• ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืื™ ืฉื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ-ืžืขืจื‘ื™ ืฉืœ ืงืœื”ืืจื™. ื–ื• ืคื ื™ื ืช ืืชืจ ืžื•ืจืฉืช ืขื•ืœืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ืื•ื ืกืง"ื• ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืžืขืœ 4,000 ืฆื™ื•ืจื™ื ืžืจืฉื™ืžื™ื ืฉื ืžืฆืื• ื‘ืœืžืขืœื” ืž- 200 ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช. ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ืžืืžื™ื ื™ื ืฉื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ื›ื‘ืจ ื ื™ืฆื‘ื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ืงืจืงืข ืœืคื ื™ ืœืžืขืœื” ืž- 30,00 ืฉื ื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืื•ืกืฃ ื™ืฆื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืคืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžืขืจื•ืช. ืชืฆื•ืจืช ื”ืกืœืขื™ื ื”ืžื•ืคืœืื” ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืจ ืžื•ืกื™ืคื” ืœื ื•ืฃ ืขื•ืฆืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ืžื” ืฉืœ ื”ืืชืจ.

ืžื—ืคืฉื™ ืื•ืฆืจื•ืช ื™ืคื™ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืืชืจ ื‘ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ ื”ื—ื•ืจืฃ. ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื’ืŸ ืขื“ืŸ ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื›ื ืœืกื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื”ืงื™ืฆื•ื ื™. ืืœ ืชืฉื›ื— ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืฆืžื™ื’ื™ื ืžืชืื™ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื›ื‘ืš ื‘ืขืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ืœืžืงื•ื ื–ื”.

ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื”:

ืื ืืชื” ื ื•ืกืข ืžื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช, ื’ืื‘ื•ืจื•ืŸ, ื”ืชื›ื•ื ืŸ ืœื ืกื™ืขื” ืืจื•ื›ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ A2:

  • ื”ืชื—ืœ ืœื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื“ืจื•ื-ืžืขืจื‘ ืขืœ Steenbok Cl ื”ื ื•ืกืข ืœืกืจื™ื™.
  • ืขื ื”ื”ื’ืขื” ืœืกืจื™ื™, ืคื ื” ืฉืžืืœื” ืขื“ ืงื•ื•ืืฆื™.
  • ื™ืฉ ืคื ื™ื™ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื” ื ื•ืกืคืช ื‘ืกืจื•ื•ื™ ื•ืคื ื™ื™ื” ืฉืžืืœื” ื‘ื˜ืœื”ื•ื•ืืŸ ืขื“ ืงื•ื‘ื•.
  • ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืชืงืจื‘ ืœืงื˜ืข ืกื™ื‘ื•ื‘, ื”ืžืฉืš ืœื™ืฆื™ืื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘- A1. ืื–ื•ืจ ื›ื™ื›ืจ ื ื•ืกืฃ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืขืงืฃ ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ / A1 ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™, ืื– ืกืขื• ืืœ ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื”.
  • ืคื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ Molepolole Rd / A12 ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื‘- A2.
  • ื”ืžืฉืš ืœื—ืฆื•ืช ืืช ื›ื‘ื™ืฉ A3 ืขื“ ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉ A35.

ื”ื™ื›ื•ื ื• ืœืžื—ืกื•ืžื™ื ืืงืจืื™ื™ื - ื”ื›ื™ื ื• ืืช ื”ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ, ื”- IDP ื•ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืฉืœื›ื ืœืคื ื™ื›ื. ื”ื™ื–ื”ืจ ืžื”ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ืฉืžืกื‘ื™ื‘, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืืœื” ืฉื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื‘ืงื•ื“ 14 ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”.

ื’ืื‘ืื ื”

ื’ืื‘ืื ื” ื”ื•ื ื›ืคืจ ืขืฉื™ืจ ืœื™ื“ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช, ื’ืื‘ื•ืจื•ืŸ. ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ืฉืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื˜ื™ื™ืœ ืžืขืœ ื”ื’ื‘ืขื•ืช ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื” ื–ื• ืœื˜ื™ื•ืœ ืจื’ืœื™. ืžืœื‘ื“ ื”ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ืช ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช ื‘ืืชืจ, ื’ืื‘ืŸ ืžืจืฉื™ืžื” ืœื”ืคืœื™ื, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžื“ื’ื™ืฉื” ื‘ื’ืื•ื•ื” ืืช ื”ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื”ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื–ื›ื•ื›ื™ืช, ืžืชื›ืช ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื—ืจืก. ืœืขื•ื ื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื‘ืงืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ืื ื”, ืงื‘ืขื• ืชืืจื™ืš ืžืืžืฆืข ืกืคื˜ืžื‘ืจ ื•ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืžืจืฅ. ืื™ืจื•ืขื™ ื‘ื™ืœื•ื™ ื”ื ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ืจ.

ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืช ื”ื›ืคืจ ืคืœื’ืื ื•

ื›ื“ื™ ืœืคื ืง ืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ื›ืžื• ื›ืœื™ ื—ืจืก, ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืช ื”ื›ืคืจ ืคืœื’ืื ื• ื”ื™ื ืชื•ืกืคืช ื™ืคื” ืœืจืฉื™ืžื”. ื–ื”ื• ืžืคืขืœ ื—ืจืก ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื” ืฉืžื•ื›ืจ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืกื—ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœื›ืœื™ ืื•ื›ืœ, ืื’ืจื˜ืœื™ื, ืกื™ืจื™ื ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื“ืงื•ืจื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื.

ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื”:

ืžื’ืื‘ื•ืจื•ืŸ ื–ื” ื™ื™ืงื— ื ืกื™ืขื” ืฉืœ 30 ื“ืงื•ืช ื“ืจืš A1 ื•- A10 Rd:

  • ืคื’ืข ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ื“ืจื•ื-ืžืขืจื‘ ืกื˜ื ื‘ื•ืง ืงืœ ืœืกืจื™ื™.
  • ืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจ ื”ืžืกืœื•ืœ ืขื“ ืงื•ื•ืืฆื™, ื•ืื– ืคื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื” ืขืœ ืกืจื•ื•ืœ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืคื ื” ืฉืžืืœื” ื‘ื˜ืœื”ื•ื•ืืŸ.
  • ื‘ื”ื’ืขื” ืœืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื›ื™ื›ืจ, ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื• ืœื™ืฆื™ืื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœ- A1 Rd.
  • ื”ืžืฉืš ื‘ื ืกื™ืขื” ื“ืจืš A1 ืขื“ ื”ื’ืขื” ืœืงื˜ืข ื”ื›ื™ื›ืจ ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœืขืงื™ืคื” ื”ืžืขืจื‘ื™ืช / A1.
  • ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืฉืช ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉ A10, ืฆื ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ืช ื”ื›ื™ื›ืจ ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื”.

ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืชืžื™ื“ ื›ืืฉืจ ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ื”ื’ื”, ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืžืชืื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื’ื”. ืื ืืชื” ื“ื™ ืžื‘ื•ืœื‘ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื, ื—ืคืฉ ื”ืฆืขืช ืžื—ื™ืจ ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ืžืคื•ืจืกืžืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ืชืฉื›ื— ืืช ื–ื”.

ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื” ืื•ืœื™ ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื‘ื™ื”ืœื•ืžื™ื ื”ืžืกื ื•ื•ืจื™ื, ืืš ื™ืฉื ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืจืชืงื™ื ืฉืขืœื™ื›ื ืœื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ืืจืฅ. ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืืชื” ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื, ื•ื“ื ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืš ืืช ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื”, ืืช IDP ื•ื”ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื™ืฆื˜ืจื›ื• ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืืช ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ืฉืœืš. ืชื™ื”ื ื• ืžื”ืจืคืชืงื” ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจ ื‘ื‘ื•ืฆื•ืื ื”!

Wheel IDP

ืžื•ื›ื ื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ื™ืชืจ ื”ื ื”ื™ื’ื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ ื•ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืœื ืกื•ืข ืœื—ื•"ืœ?

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ื”ืชื—ืœ ืืช ื”ื™ื™ืฉื•ื ืฉืœื™
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